1-9 A-D E-G H-M N-P Q-S T-Z

ORTHO PHTHALALDEHYDE (ORTO FİTALALDEHİT)

ORTHOPHTHALALDEHYDE

o-Phthalaldehyde; 643-79-8; o-Phthaldialdehyde; PHTHALALDEHYDE; Benzene-1,2-dicarboxaldehyde; 1,2-Benzenedicarboxaldehyde; Phthaldialdehyde; Phthalic aldehyde; Phthalic dialdehyde; ortho-Phthalaldehyde; Phthalyldicarboxaldehyde; o-Phthaldehyde; benzene-1,2-dicarbaldehyde; Phthalic dicarboxaldehyde; Phthalaldialdehyde; o-Phthalicdicarboxaldehyde; 1,2-Diformylbenzene; 2-PHTHALALDEHYDE; 1,2-Phthalic dicarboxaldehyde; ortho Phthalaldehyde; o-Phthalic dicarboxaldehyde; 1,2-BENZENEDICARBALDEHYDE; OPA; OPTA; Phtalaldehydes [French]; NSC 13394; UNII-4P8QP9768A; CHEBI:70851; 2-PHTHALDIALDEHYDE; Phtalaldehydes; 1,2-Phthalic dicarboxaldehyde, 98+%; CAS-643-79-8; Orthophthaldialdehyde; ortho-Phthalic Aldehyde; phthalaldehyd; o-Phthalaldehyd; o-phthal aldehyde; orthophthalaldehyde; Phtharal (JAN); Disopa (TN); 2-PHTHALDEHYDE; Phthaldialdehyde Reagent; ORTHO-PHTHALADEHYDE; Epitope ID:176774; O-PHTHALIC DIALDEHYDE; 2-Phthaldehyde, High purity ; SCHEMBL33393; 4-07-00-02138 (Beilstein Handbook Reference); 1,2-Phthalic dicarboxyaldehyde; (Orto Fitalaldehit); (Ortho Phthalaldehyde); (O- Phthalaldehyde) CHEMBL160145; Phthaldialdehyde Reagent, Solution Incomplete; Phthaldialdehyde Reagent, Solution Complete; FLUORALDEHYDE(TM) O-PHTHALALDEHYDE; Ortho-Phthalic Aldehyde (OPA); BENZENE-1,2-DIALDEHYDE; 1,2-Phthalic dicarboxyaldehyde; O-PHTHALIC DIALDEHYDE; 2-Phthaldehyde, High purity; ORTHO-PHTHALADEHYDE; Phthaldialdehyde Reagent; Orthophthaldialdehyde; ortho-Phthalic Aldehyde; phthalaldehyd; o-Phthalaldehyd; o-phthal aldehyde; orthophthalaldehyde; Phtharal (JAN);

CAS NO: 643-79-8

 

 


Ortofitalaldehit (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OPA), FDA tarafından onaylanmış olan yüksek düzey dezenfektan solüsyondur. 1,2 Benzendikarboksaldehit içerir. (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA, geniş bir pH aralığında (pH 3-9) stabil olma özelliğine sahiptir. Gözler ve solunum yolları mukozası üzerinde ciddi irritasyon yapmaz, maruziyet sonrasında monitorizasyon gerekli değildir, rahatsız edici kokusu yoktur. Aktive edilmesi gerekli değildir. (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA solüsyonunun dezavantajı proteinleri griye boyamasıdır. İyi temizlenmemiş aletlerde renk değişikliğine yol açar. İyi temizlenmemiş tıbbi gereçlere uygulanması durumunda doku fiksasyonu yaparak biyofilm oluşumuna neden olur. Temas sırasında kişisel korunma malzemeleri kullanılmalıdır. Ayrıca hastanın mukozasında veya cildinde boyanmayı önlemek için aletler çok iyi durulanmalıdır. (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA solüsyonu yüksek düzey dezenfeksiyon süresi 5-12 dakikadır. (Avrupa, Asya ve Latin Amerika ülkelerinde 5 dak. Kanada ve Avustralya'da 10 dak. Amerika Birleşik Devletlerinde ise 12 dak. olarak uygulanmaktadır) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA kullanım sonrası yürürlükteki tehlikeli kimyasal atık bertarafı ile ilgili yönetmelikler ve öneriler doğrultusunda imha edilmelidir. Yüksek düzey dezenfeksiyon için kullanılan (sporisit) bileşikler Yüksek düzey ( sporisit ) dezenfektanlar ve genel özellikleri Glutaraldehit Yüksek seviye dezenfektan olarak yaygın şekilde kullanılmaktadır. Alkali glutaraldehit % 2 yoğunlukta vejetatif bakterileri 2 dakikada, mikobakterileri 20 dakikada, sporlu bakterileri ise ancak 3 saatte öldürmektedir. Yüksek seviye dezenfeksiyon için oda ısısında 20 dakika temas süresi yeterli olmaktadır. Aletlere zarar vermemesi ve ucuz olması nedeniyle tercih edilmektedir. Toksik ve iritan olduğundan ancak iyi havalanan bir yerde ve kapalı kaplar içinde kullanılmalıdır. Çözeltileri 14-28 gün süre ile kullanılabilir. Ortofitalaldehitle 10 dakika temas süresi yüksek seviye dezenfeksiyon için yeterlidir. Ortofitalaldehit (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (OPA): Toksisitesi glutaraldehitten daha az, mikobakterilere daha hızlı etkili bir bileşiktir. Glutaraldehitten pahalıdır. Ancak her ikisi de proteinleri fiske edici özellik gösterir. Bu nedenle temiz olmayan şartlarda asla kullanılmamaları gerekir. Sterilizasyon için en az 6 saat gereklidir. Çözeltileri maksimum 14 gün süreyle kullanılabilir. (Orto Fitalaldehit) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA için de glutaraldehitte olduğu gibi güvenlik önlemleri alınmalı, iyi havalanan bir yerde ve kapalı kaplar içinde kullanılmalıdır. (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) temas ettiği yüzeylerde, cilt ve elbiselerde boyanmaya neden olur. Ortofitalaldehit 1,2 benzen dikarboksialdehitdir. Geniş bir pH aralığında (pH: 3-9) stabil olma özelliğine sahiptir. Kullanım öncesi aktive edilmesi gerekli değildir. Mükemmel malzeme uyumu gösterir. İyi temizlenmemiş üzerinde biyolojik artık kalmış olan tıbbi cihazlarda renk değişikliğine yol açar. Biyolojik artıkların tıbbi cihaz üzerinde sabitlenmesine yol açar ve biyofilm oluşumuna neden olur. Gözler ve solunum yolları mukozası üzerinde ciddi irritasyon yapmaz, maruziyet sonrasında monitorizasyon gerekli değildir, rahatsız edici kokusu yoktur. Kanserojen değildir. Fakat (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA, deri, mukoza, giyim ve çevre yüzeyler dahil olmak üzere proteinleri griye boyayarak leke yapar. Temas sırasında eldiven, göz ve ağız koruması, sıvı geçirmez önlük gibi KKE'ler kullanılmalıdır. Ayrıca hastanın mukozasında veya cildinde boyanmayı önlemek için tıbbi cihazlar çok iyi durulanmalıdır. Mesane kanserli hastalarda OPA (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) kalıntısına bağlı anafilaktik şok riski nedeniyle OPA ile dezenfekte edilmiş sistoskopların kullanılması önerilmez. Ortofitalaldehit (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (OPA), doğrudan nükleik asitlere etki eder, hücresel bileşenlerin alkilasyonu ile mikroorganizmaları öldürür. Tüm mikroorganizmalara etkili olup, mikobakterilere etkisi glutaraldehitten daha iyidir. Normal pH'da sporisidal değildir. Kullanım için % 0.55'lik konsantrasyon önerilir. (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA solüsyonu YDD süresi, elde kullanımda 12 dakika, ısı kontrolü yapılabilen otomatik makine ile kullanımda 25°C'de 5 dakikadır. Kullanıma açılan çözelti 14 gün boyunca kullanılabilir, açılmayan kutu iki yıl raf ömrüne sahiptir. Kullanımı sırasında gluteraldehitte olduğu gibi tıbbi cihazların üzerindeki su artıklarından konsantrasyonu düşeceği için etkin konsantrasyonda olduğunun kontrol edilmesi gerekmektedir ve bu amaçla test şeritleri kullanılır. Minimum etkin konsantrasyon % 0.3'tür. (Orto Fitalaldehit) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA ekotoksik olması nedeniyle kullanım sonrası atık olarak kanalizasyon sistemine atılmadan önce nötralizasyon gerekir, yürürlükteki tehlikeli kimyasal atık bertarafı ile ilgili yönetmelikler ve öneriler doğrultusunda imha edilmelidir. Ortofitalaldehit bazlı dezenfektanlar % 0.55 oranında aktif madde içeren kullanıma hazır solüsyonlar olarak sunulur. Ticari olarak piyasada mevcut olan ürünler manüel olarak veya otomatik dezenfeksiyon cihazlarında ve yıkayıcı dezenfektörlerde kullanılabilir. Yapılan çalış malar ortofitalaldehitin gluteraldehit en daha iyi mikrobiyolojik etkisi olduğunu göstermiştir. Ortofitalaldehitin gluteraldehite dirençli mikobakterilere karşı etkili olabilmesi için uzun süre temas etmesi gerekir. Zararlı buharlar oluşturmaz, aktivasyon gerektirmez ve 3 ile 9 arasındaki geniş bir pH aralığında stabil kalabilir. FDA onayı vardır. Ortofitalaldehit buharına maruz kalındığında solunum yolunda ve gözlerde tahriş olabilir. İyi havalandırılmış mekanlarda ve kapağı iyi kapanan kaplarda kullanılması önerilir. Ortofitalaldehit (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) avantajları gluteraldehite göre daha etkili ve uzun ömürlü (2 hafta) olmasıdır. Ortofitalaldehit konsantrasyonunun her zaman çok doğru bir şekilde kontrol edilmesi gerekir. Ortofitalaldehit'nın bazı dezavantajları vardır. Bu dezenfektanın etki ve özellikler bakımından bir süre daha değerlendirilmesi gerekmektedir. Güvenli temas düzeyleri ve uzun süre temasa bağlı hasarlar hakkındaki bilgi azdır Ortofitalaldehit (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) proteinlerin pıhtılaşmasına ve tespitine neden olmaktadır (biyofilm). Amino ve tiyol gruplarının reaksiyonu sonucu temas ettiği yüzeyde, aletlerde, pamuklu kumaşlarda ve cilde boyanmaya neden olabilir (Maillart reaksiyonu). Ortofitalaldehit tekrarlanan kullanımlardan sonra anafilaksiye benzer reaksiyonlara sebep olmuştur. O-Fitalaldehit veya orto-ftalaldehit (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OPA), C6H4 (CHO) 2 formülüne sahip kimyasal bileşiktir. Genellikle kısaltılmış OPA, molekül bir benzen halkasında komşu karbon merkezlerine bağlı iki formil (CHO) grubundan oluşan bir dialdehittir. Soluk sarı renkli bu katı, heterosiklik bileşiklerin sentezinde bir yapı taşı ve amino asitler analizinde bir reaktiftir. OPA, pH <11.5 olan su çözeltisinde erir. Solüsyonları UV aydınlatması ve havaya maruz kalma üzerine bozunur. (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) polimerize edilebilir. Polimerde, oksijen atomlarından biri, aynı fitalaldehit biriminin diğer halka-olmayan karbonuna köprü oluştururken, diğer köprüler başka bir fitalaldehit biriminin halka-olmayan karbonuna köprü oluşturur. Poli (ftalaldehit), bir fotorezist oluşturmada kullanılır. (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) Ortofitalaldehit veya (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA, heterosiklik bileşiklerin sentezinde kullanılan bir dialdehid ve amino asitlerin analizinde bir reaktiftir. (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) OPA, hastanelerde tıbbi bir dezenfektan olarak ve hasta bakımı için cerrahi alet sterilizasyon çözümü olarak yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır. Ortofitalaldehit, geniş bir endoskop yelpazesini ve diğer ısıya hassas kritik yarı tıbbi cihazları dezenfekte etmeye yardımcı olabilir.
Ortho-Phthalaldehyde (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (OPA), endoskop, sistoskoplar ve bazı diş araçlarını da içeren normal ısı veya buhar sterilizasyonu süreçlerine duyarlı tıbbi ekipman için üst düzey bir antimikrobiyal dezenfektan olarak kullanılan bir aromatik dialdehittir. 40 yıldır, başka bir dialdehit olan glutaraldehit, ısıya duyarlı tıbbi cihazların dezenfekte edilmesi için birincil tercih olmuştur; Bununla birlikte, kimyasal bir sensitizör olduğu bildirilmiştir. Glutaraldehidin biyolojik aminlere karşı yüksek afiniteye sahip olduğu bilinmektedir ve bir doku fiksatif maddesi olarak kullanımı bu mülkiyetten yararlanmaktadır. Bu nedenle, bir kimyasal sınıf olan glutaraldehit ve dialdehitler doğal proteinlere bağlanabilir, böylece sunumlarını bağışıklık sistemine değiştirirler. Floraldehit Reaktif Çözeltisi, floresan algılama ve kantitatif etkinleştirmek için amino asitler, peptit ve proteinlerin birincil aminleri ile reaksiyona giren (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA (o-ftalaldehit) içerir. Bir protein veya peptit tahlil reaktifi olarak veya amino asit analizi (HPLC) için bir ön veya son sütun tespit reaktifi olarak kullanılabilen reaktif. (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA'nın proteinler ve peptidlerle reaksiyonu, geniş bir konsantrasyon yelpazesinde doğrusal sonuçlar verir. Fluoraldehyde Reaktif Çözümü, kullanıma hazır olarak tedarik edilir ve çözeltideki proteinlerin veya peptidlerin hızlı bir şekilde nicelenmesini sağlar.

 

 

Moleküler Formül: C8H6O2
Moleküler Ağırlık: 134.13
Yoğunluk: 1.19 g / mL
Erime Noktası: 55.5-56 ° C
Görünüş: Sarı katı
Nakliye Bilgileri: 25kgs

 

 


IDENTIFICATION: o-Phthalaldehyde is a pale, yellow crystal or colorless powder. It is soluble in water. USE: o-Phthalaldehyde is used as a disinfectant, mainly for dental and medical equipment. EXPOSURE: Workers that produce or use o-phthalaldehyde may have direct skin contact. The general population may be exposed by contact with residual disinfectant. If o-phthalaldehyde is released to the environment, it will be broken down in air by reaction with hydroxyl radicals. It may be broken down in the air by sunlight. It will not volatilize into air from soil or water surfaces. It is expected to move easily through soil. It is not expected to build up in fish. RISK: Irritation to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract as well as asthma and allergic skin rashes have been reported in some healthcare workers that routinely use o-phthalaldehyde to disinfect equipment. Severe anaphylactic allergic reactions have been reported in some patients exposed to equipment disinfected with o-phthalaldehyde. Discoloration of the mouth and throat, burning of the throat, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may occur with ingestion. Damage to the nose, throat, lung, skin, and eyes were observed in laboratory animals following repeated exposure to low air levels of o-phthalaldehyde, damage was severe at moderate air levels and some animals died. Several alterations in the blood were also observed. Damage to the gastrointestinal tract, irregular breathing, impaired movement, and changes in the blood were observed in laboratory animals given moderate oral doses. Some animals died at high oral doses. No evidence of abortion or birth defects were noted in laboratory animals exposed to o-phthalaldehyde during pregnancy, but delayed bone development was observed at high doses that made the mothers sick. Data on the potential for o-phthalaldehyde to cause infertility in laboratory animals were not available. However, damage to the testis and reduced sperm counts and motility were observed in male animals following repeated exposure to low air levels of o-phthalaldehyde. Data on the potential for o-phthalaldehyde to cause cancer in laboratory animals were not available. The potential for o-phthalaldehyde to cause cancer in humans has not been assessed by the U.S. EPA IRIS program, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, or the U.S. National Toxicology Program 14th Report on Carcinogens. (SRC) Mainly used in medicine, dyestuff and so on. The product is a pharmaceutical intermediates, the latest topical efficient and safe anti-bacterial disinfectant, as an endoscopic surgical instruments used in hospital sterilization, can be used for the synthesis of new anti-platelet aggregation drugs indole Bofen, but also the field of chemistry analysis reagents. o-Phthalaldehyde (OPA) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) is used as disinfectant and reagent in fluorometric determination of primary amines and thiols. HUMAN STUDIES: OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) is a commonly used solution for rapid sterilization of medical equipment. Cases of anaphylaxis following cystoscopy with endoscopes sterilized with this agent have been reported. OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) -induced anaphylaxis following laryngoscopy have also been described. In these patients, OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) -specific IgE was detected in the serum. Contact dermatitis occurred in 4 workers of the endoscopy unit, one of whom also developed asthma. Among 80 female disinfection workers who used only antiseptic solutions containing OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde), the incidence of disinfection-related complaints were 10% skin, 9% eye, and 16% respiratory symptoms. ANIMAL STUDIES: In male mice, injected OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) induced specific IgE and IgG in the sera, suggesting that OPA(orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) acts as a hapten. Overall, OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) caused acute inflammation and acted as a haptenic allergen, although it caused only mild liver injury. In mice sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA), OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) enhanced the OVA-induced recruitment of neutrophils to the lung and the production of allergen-specific IgE, suggesting that OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde)acts as an immunological adjuvant. The major targets from OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) exposure in rats and mice included the respiratory system (nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, and lung), skin, eye, testis, and epididymis. The most sensitive measure of OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) inhalation toxicity in male and female rats and mice was significantly increased incidences of nasal cavity lesions (lowest-observable-effect concentration = 0.44 ppm). OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) was mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 in the absence of exogenous metabolic activation; no mutagenicity was seen in TA100 with metabolic activation or in TA98 or Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA/pKM101, with or without metabolic activation 2.2Human Toxicity Excerpts (Complete) New Window /CASE REPORTS/ Iatrogenic injury from medical disinfectants is an uncommon but potentially devastating complication. We report an unusual, but severe, upper aerodigestive complication from the use of ortho-phthalaldehyde solution, a commonly used endoscope disinfectant. Ortho-phthalaldehyde (Cidex OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde)) is a commonly used solution for rapid sterilization of flexible endoscopic equipment. We report two cases of anaphylaxis following cystoscopy with endoscopes sterilized with this agent. Only a handful of such reactions have been reported in the published literature, the majority of which are in the bladder cancer population undergoing surveillance cystoscopy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the clinical presentation of two cases of anaphylaxis following flexible cystoscopy with instruments sterilized with ortho-phthalaldehyde (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde). We further describe their subsequent evaluation by an allergy and immunology specialist who performed skin testing to confirm a suspected ortho-phthalaldehyde allergy. RESULTS: Both patients were skin test positive to ortho-phthalaldehyde antigen. As a result, sterilization techniques for our flexible endoscopes has been altered. To date, no further anaphylactic reactions have occurred in our bladder cancer patients, including the two cases presented herein following subsequent cystoscopic evaluations. CONCLUSIONS: (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) Ortho-phthalaldehyde-sterilized cystoscopes have been associated with anaphylactic reactions in a small number of patients who have undergone repeated cystoscopy. The manufacturer has already made recommendations to avoid this agent in bladder cancer patients. It may be prudent to extend this practice to other populations undergoing repeat cystoscopy. Ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) has recently been used as a disinfectant for various medical apparatuses. OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) is not generally recognized as a potential allergen. CASE SUMMARY: Subsequent to our recent report describing a patient presenting with (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA-induced anaphylaxis following laryngoscopy, we experienced two more such cases. In all three cases, the basophil histamine release test was useful for identifying the allergen as (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA. OPA-specific IgE was successfully detected in the serum of the patients by ELISA. DISCUSSION: Physicians and co-medical workers need to be aware of potential allergens to which patients may be exposed during routine medical procedures. ecause body fluids and blood have a tendency to adhere to transesophageal echo devices, a high level of sterilization is required when cleaning them. Ortho-phthalaldehyde (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (OPA) has been widely used in Japan since being approved as a high-level sterilant. The authors report a patient with widespread, severe skin and mucous membrane damage of the lip, tongue, pharynx and esophagus areas that was attributed to inadequate washing after the sterilization of a transesophageal echo device with OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde). This patient experienced sequelae, which did not improve after more than 1 year of continuous treatment. When using medical devices sterilized with (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA, the use of a probe cover, when applicable, is recommended and complete washing prior to use is required. PIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES/ Recently, the use of ortho-phthalaldehyde (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (OPA) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) has been increasing as an alternative to glutaraldehyde (GA) for endoscope disinfection. We detected development of bronchial asthma and contact dermatitis in health care workers (HCW) employed in an endoscopy unit. After performing health examinations and work environment measurements, we took preventative measures against development of these diseases. Seventeen of 70 HCW had experienced skin, respiratory, or eye symptoms. Contact dermatitis occurred in 4 workers, one of whom also developed asthma. OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) concentration in the air of the endoscopy unit ranged from 0.06 to 2.01 ppb. The highest OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) concentration was obtained while the cover of a bucket for dipping endoscopy instruments was opened. Dipping of instruments was then discontinued, a personal protector was provided to each HCW and local ventilation devices for auto-washers, and health education was performed for HCW. At the periodic health examination the next year, two of 83 HCW described mild eye irritation, but no contact dermatitis or bronchitis had newly developed. This study clearly revealed that despite a very low level of OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) in air, symptoms of skin and the respiratory tract can occur. Spreading use of OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) as a substitute for GA may result in serious health risks for HCW. To prevent health hazards from OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) exposure, wearing of a personal protector and use of a fully automated washing machine with a local air exhauster are required. ALTERNATIVE and IN VITRO TESTS/ We investigated the corneal toxicity of ortho-phthalaldehyde (Cidex OPA) and its predecessor glutaraldehyde (Cidex). We made primary cultures of porcine and human corneal endothelial cells. Commercially available cell lines were also used including human, bovine, and rabbit corneal epithelium and human conjunctival cells. Following incubation for two days, cell survival was measured using a WST-1 assay for endothelia and a MTT assay for the other cells. Test solutions included 2.25% and 3.5% glutaraldehyde and 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde. Cell survival was presented as a percentage of the control value. (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) ortho-phthalaldehyde displayed less toxicity than glutaraldehyde for all cell types tested. As expected 3.5% glutaraldehyde was slightly more toxic than 2.25% glutaraldehyde. When primary human corneal endothelial cultures were exposed to ortho-phthalaldehyde, the survival rates were 88% for 100-fold dilutions and 95% for 500-fold dilutions. The survival rates for all cells tested were greater than 90% when dilutions of 1000-fold or more were used. In conclusion, the corneal toxicity of glutaraldehyde and (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) ortho-phthalaldehyde appears to be within safe levels following washing procedures and therefore the use of these disinfectants may be suitable for selected ophthalmic surgical instruments in urgent or under-equipped circumstances. ALTERNATIVE and IN VITRO TESTS/ Some studies show the uptake of disinfectants on medical devices but no studies on their cytotoxicity have been reported. This study aimed to assess that cytotoxicity in a 3-dimensional culture system using HeLa cells grown in matrices composed of collagen. Plastic materials were soaked in the use solutions of the widely used high-level disinfectants, glutaraldehyde (GA), ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) and peracetic acid (PAA). After being rinsed, they were allowed to dry and were embedded into the cell medium to investigate the cytotoxicity of the residual disinfectants. Cytotoxicity was observed with the polyvinyl chloride, polyurethane and silicon tubes soaked in GA and (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA, indicating that both disinfectants were absorbed in the test pieces, whereas for PAA, none was observed. As for the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubes, no disinfectant displayed cytotoxicity. GA and OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) are primary irritants, having a potential to cause anaphylaxis and other forms of allergic reactions. There should be consideration not only about the toxicity of the residual disinfectant from poor rinsing, but also about the toxicity that would result from the disinfectants that were absorbed and consequently released from the medical devices or materials. ALTERNATIVE and IN VITRO TESTS/ Although ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) has been suggested as an alternative to glutaraldehyde for the sterilization and disinfection of hospital equipment, the toxicity has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the irritancy and sensitization potential of OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde). The EpiDerm Skin Irritation Test was used to evaluate in vitro irritancy potential of OPA (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) and glutaraldehyde. Treatment with 0.4125 and 0.55% OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) induced irritation, while glutaraldehyde exposure at these concentrations did not. Consistent with the in vitro results, OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) induced irritancy, evaluated by ear swelling, when mice were treated with 0.75%. Initial evaluation of the sensitization potential was conducted using the local lymph node assay at concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 0.75%. A concentration-dependent increase in lymphocyte proliferation was observed with a calculated EC3 value of 0.051% compared to that of 0.089%, previously determined for glutaraldehyde. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-inducing potential was evaluated by phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node (DLN) cells and measurement of total and specific serum IgE levels. The 0.1 and 0.75% exposed groups yielded significant increases in the IgE+B220+ cell population in the lymph nodes while the 0.75% treated group demonstrated significant increases in total IgE, (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA-specific IgE, and (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA-specific IgG(1). In addition, significant increases in interleukin-4 messenger RNA and protein expression in the DLNs were observed in (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) OPA-treated groups. The results demonstrate the dermal irritancy and allergic potential of OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) and raise concern about the proposed/intended use of OPA as a safe alternative to glutaraldehyde. OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Recently, the use of ortho-phthalaldehyde (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OPA) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) has been increasing as an alternative to glutaraldehyde for endoscope disinfection. To better understand (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) exposure and its health effects among disinfection workers, we conducted environmental monitoring and administered a questionnaire in 17 endoscope disinfection rooms. There were 9 manual disinfection rooms using immersion vats for scope disinfection and 8 automatic rooms using automatic washers. RESULTS: (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) exposure concentration during the disinfection process of scope was significantly higher in the manual group (median: 1.43 ppb, range: not detected (ND-5.37 ppb) than in the automatic group (median: 0.35 ppb, range: ND-0.69 ppb). Similarly, during charging and discharging the antiseptic solution, (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA levels were significantly higher in the manual group (median: 2.58 ppb, range: 0.92-10.0 ppb) than in the automatic group (median: 0.46 ppb, range: ND-1.35 ppb). Time-weighted averages of (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) exposure concentration during work shifts were 0.33 to 1.15 ppb (median 0.66 ppb) in the manual group and 0.13 to 1.28 ppb (median 0.33 ppb) in the automatic group, which suggests that manual workers are exposed to (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) OPA at higher levels. Among 80 female disinfection workers who used only antiseptic solutions containing (Orto Fitalaldehit) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA, the incidence of disinfection-related complaints were 10% skin, 9% eye, and 16% respiratory symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that it is desirable to introduce automatic washers to decrease OPA (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) exposure levels among disinfection workers. Recently, the use of ortho-phthalaldehyde (Orto Fitalaldehit) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (OPA) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) has been increasing as an alternative to glutaraldehyde(GA)for endoscope disinfection. We detected development of bronchial asthma and contact dermatitis in health care workers (HCW) employed in an endoscopy unit. ... Two of 83 health care workers described mild eye irritation, but no contact dermatitis or bronchitis had newly developed. LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ Although ortho-phthalaldehyde (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OPA) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) has been suggested as an alternative to glutaraldehyde for the sterilization and disinfection of hospital equipment, the toxicity has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the irritancy and sensitization potential of (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA. The EpiDerm Skin Irritation Test was used to evaluate in vitro irritancy potential of OPA and glutaraldehyde. Treatment with 0.4125 and 0.55% (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA induced irritation, while glutaraldehyde exposure at these concentrations did not. Consistent with the in vitro results, (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) induced irritancy, evaluated by ear swelling, when mice were treated with 0.75%. Initial evaluation of the sensitization potential was conducted using the local lymph node assay at concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 0.75%. A concentration-dependent increase in lymphocyte proliferation was observed with a calculated EC3 value of 0.051% compared to that of 0.089%, previously determined for glutaraldehyde. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-inducing potential was evaluated by phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node (DLN) cells and measurement of total and specific serum IgE levels. The 0.1 and 0.75% exposed groups yielded significant increases in the IgE+B220+ cell population in the lymph nodes while the 0.75% treated group demonstrated significant increases in total IgE, (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA-specific IgE, and (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA-specific IgG(1). In addition, significant increases in interleukin-4 messenger RNA and protein expression in the DLNs were observed in (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) OPA-treated groups. The results demonstrate the dermal irritancy and allergic potential of (Orto Fitalaldehit) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) OPA and raise concern about the proposed/intended use of (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA as a safe alternative to glutaraldehyde. ABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ ortho-Phthalaldehyde (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OPA) has been used as a safe alternative disinfectant instead of glutaraldehyde; however, recently some adverse effects of (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) OPA were reported in patients and medical professions. We examined the acute toxicity of (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA in male ICR mice injected with 0.125-0.5% OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) and killed some animals 1 day after a single OPA (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) injection, and others 1 or 13 days after two OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) injections 5 days apart. Hematology, blood cell counts, specific antibody production, organ weights, hepatic enzymes, hepatic histopathology and gene expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) mRNA in liver were examined. Single OPA (Orto Fitalaldehit) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) injections elevated leukocyte counts, the proportion of neutrophils, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Two (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA injections dose-dependently increased leukocyte counts, the proportion of neutrophils, ALT and AST, and decreased alkaline phosphatase. Leukocyte counts and proportions of neutrophils normalized 13 days after the second of two injections. However, both ALT and AST remained high in mice given higher (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA doses. Significant increased liver-to-body weight ratio and mild hepatic lesions were observed. Gene expression of CYP1a1 and CYP2e1 revealed a tendency of up-regulation 1 day after two (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA injections. However, expression of these genes was then down-regulated 13 days after (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) OPA injections. (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA induced specific IgE and IgG significantly in the sera, suggesting that OPA acts as a hapten. Overall, (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA caused acute inflammation and acted as a haptenic allergen, although it caused only mild liver injury. Such evidence suggested that careful washing and prevention of exposure were needed after (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA disinfection of medical instruments. evelopmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ The general population is exposed to phthalates through consumer products, diet, and medical devices. Phthalic acid (PA) is a common final metabolite of phthalates, and its isomers include isophthalic acid (IPA), terephthalic acid (TPA), and phthalaldehyde (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (o-phthalic acid, OPA). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether PA and PA isomers exert reproductive toxicity, including altered sperm movement. In vitro cell viability assays were comparatively performed using Sertoli and liver cell lines. In animal experiments, PA or PA isomers (10, 100, or 1000 mg/kg) were administered orally to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, and semen samples were analyzed by computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA). PA treatment produced a significant effect on curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight-line velocity (VSL), mean velocity or average path velocity (VAP), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), and frequency of head displacement or beat cross-frequency (BCF), whereas IPA, TPA, and (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA induced no marked effects. In vitro cell viability assays showed that mouse normal testis cells (TM4) and human testis cancer cells (NTERA 2 cl. D1) were more sensitive to PA and (Orto Fitalaldehit) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA than mouse liver normal cells (NCTC clone 1469) and human fetal liver cells (FL 62891). Our study suggests that PA and PA isomers specifically produced significant in vitro and in vivo reproductive toxicity, particularly sperm toxicity and testis cell cytotoxicity. Of the isomers examined, PA appeared to be the most toxic and may serve as a surrogate biomarker for reproductive toxicity following mixed exposure to phthalates. o-Phthalaldehyde (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OPA) is a bifunctional reagent that forms an isoindole derivative by reacting with cysteine and lysine residues separated by approximately 0.3 nm. OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) inhibits sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase activity at low micromolar concentrations and induces Ca(2+) release from actively loaded SR vesicles by activating the ryanodine receptor from fast twitch skeletal muscle. Both ryanodine binding and single-channel activity show a biphasic concentration dependence. At low (Orto Fitalaldehit) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA concentrations (<100 uM), ryanodine binding and single channel activity are stimulated, while at higher concentrations, a time-dependent sequential activation and inhibition of receptor binding is observed. Activation is characterized by a Ca(2+)-independent increase in maximal receptor occupancy. Data are presented to support a model in which Ca(2+) channel and ryanodine binding activity are enhanced due to an intramolecular cross-linking of nearby lysine and nonhyperreactive cysteine residues. (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) OPA complexation with endogenous lysine residue(s) is critical for receptor activation. ALTERNATIVE and IN VITRO TESTS/ We investigated the corneal toxicity of ortho-phthalaldehyde (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Cidex OPA) and its predecessor glutaraldehyde (Cidex). We made primary cultures of porcine and human corneal endothelial cells. Commercially available cell lines were also used including human, bovine, and rabbit corneal epithelium and human conjunctival cells. Following incubation for two days, cell survival was measured using a WST-1 assay for endothelia and a MTT assay for the other cells. Test solutions included 2.25% and 3.5% glutaraldehyde and 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde. Cell survival was presented as a percentage of the control value. ortho-phthalaldehyde displayed less toxicity than glutaraldehyde for all cell types tested. As expected 3.5% glutaraldehyde was slightly more toxic than 2.25% glutaraldehyde. When primary human corneal endothelial cultures were exposed to ortho-phthalaldehyde, the survival rates were 88% for 100-fold dilutions and 95% for 500-fold dilutions. The survival rates for all cells tested were greater than 90% when dilutions of 1000-fold or more were used. In conclusion, the corneal toxicity of glutaraldehyde and ortho-phthalaldehyde appears to be within safe levels following washing procedures and therefore the use of these disinfectants may be suitable for selected ophthalmic surgical instruments in urgent or under-equipped circumstances. IMMUNOTOXICITY/ ortho-Phthalaldehyde (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (OPA) is commonly used as a safer and more effective chemical disinfectant for use with medical devices in hospitals. However, the cases of patients with occupational bronchial asthma or contact dermatitis are recently reported among workers in the medical professions who were exposed to (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA disinfectant. Mechanism of allergic reaction associated with OPA (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) is poorly understood. The purpose of this study is that (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) may act as an immunological adjuvant in the allergic reaction accompanied by enhanced specific-IgE production in response to allergen challenge in /ovalbumin/ OVA-sensitized mice. (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) induced increase of total cell numbers, and reflected infiltration of neutrophils in BAL /bronchoalveolar lavage/ fluid after allergen challenge in sensitized mice, dose-dependently. However, total protein concentration in BAL fluid did not change in the all of groups. The OPA (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) induced up-regulation of eotaxin and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 mRNAs in the lung as well as the increase in OVA-specific IgE in sensitized mice compared with non-sensitized controlled mice without increase in the level of OVA-specific IgG. Cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA were expressed by allergen (OVA) challenge in both lungs collected from (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA-administrated-sensitized and (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA-administrated-nonsensitized mice. From these data, we concluded that low concentration of (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA that enhanced the OVA-induced recruitment of neutrophils to the lung and the production of allergen-specific IgE, suggesting that OPA (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) acts as an immunological adjuvant. OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ Biocides generally have multiple biochemical targets. Such a feature easily entangles the analysis of the mechanisms of antimicrobial action. In this study, the action of the dialdehyde biocide ortho-phtalaldehyde (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OPA), on bacteria, was investigated using the Gram-negative Pseudomonas fluorescens. The targets of the biocide action were studied using different bacterial physiological indices. The respiratory activity, membrane permeabilization, physico-chemical characterization of the bacterial surfaces, outer membrane proteins (OMP) expression, concomitant influence of pH, contact time and presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on respiratory activity, morphological changes and (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) OPA-DNA interactions were assessed for different (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) OPA concentrations. With the process conditions used, the minimum inhibitory concentration was 1500 mg/L, the concentration to promote total loss of bacterial culturability was 65 mg/L and the concentration needed to inactivate respiratory activity was 80 mg/l. These data are evidence that culturability and respiratory activity were markedly affected by the biocide. (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) OPA lead, moreover, to a significant change in cell surface hydrophobicity and induced propidium iodide uptake. Such results suggest cytoplasmic membrane damage, although no release of ATP was detected. At pH 5, the bactericidal action of (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA was stronger, though not influenced by BSA presence. Nevertheless, at pH 9, BSA noticeably (p < 0.05) impaired biocide action. A time-dependent effect in (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) OPA action was evident when contemplating respiratory activity variation, mainly for the lower exposure times. Scanning electron microscopy allowed to detect bacterial morphological changes, translated on cellular elongation, for (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) OPA concentrations higher than 100 mg/l. Interferences at DNA level were, however, restricted to extreme biocide concentrations. The overall bactericidal events occurred without detectable OMP expression changes. In conclusion, the results indicated a sequence of events responsible for the antimicrobial action of (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA: it binds to membrane receptors due to cross-linkage; impairs the membrane functions allowing the biocide to enter through the permeabilized membrane; it interacts with intracellular reactive molecules, such as RNA, compromising the growth cycle of the cells and, at last, with DNA. o-Phthalaldehyde's production and use as a disinfectant may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. If released to air, a vapor pressure of 5.2X10-3 mm Hg at 21 °C indicates o-phthalaldehyde will exist solely as a vapor in the atmosphere. Vapor-phase o-phthalaldehyde will be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals; the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 17 hours. o-Phthalaldehyde has an absorption peak at 297 nm and, therefore, may be susceptible to direct photolysis by sunlight. If released to soil, o-phthalaldehyde is expected to have very high mobility based upon an estimated Koc of 10. Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is not expected based upon an estimated Henry's Law constant of 1.8X10-8 atm-cu m/mole. o-Phthalaldehyde is not expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces based upon its vapor pressure. Biodegradation data in soil or water were not available. If released into water, o-phthalaldehyde is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment based upon the estimated Koc. Volatilization from water surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process based upon this compound's estimated Henry's Law constant. An estimated BCF of 3 suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low. Hydrolysis is not expected to be an important environmental fate process since this compound lacks functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions (pH 5 to 9). Occupational exposure to o-phthalaldehyde may occur through dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where o-phthalaldehyde is produced or used. Monitoring and use data indicate that the general population may be exposed to o-phthalaldehyde via contact with products containing residual disinfectant. (SRC). o-Phthalaldehyde or ortho-phthalaldehyde (Orto Fitalaldehit) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (OPA) is the chemical compound with the formula C6H4(CHO)2. Often abbreviated OPA, the molecule is a dialdehyde, consisting of two formyl (CHO) groups attached to adjacent carbon centres on a benzene ring. This pale yellow solid is a building block in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds and a reagent in the analysis of amino acids. (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) OPA dissolves in water solution at pH < 11.5. Its solutions degrade upon UV illumination and exposure to air. The compound was first described in 1887 when it was prepared from α,α,α',α'-tetrachloro-ortho-xylene.[3] A more modern synthesis is similar: the hydrolysis of the related tetrabromoxylene using potassium oxalate, followed by purification by steam distillation. The reactivity of (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA is complicated by the fact that in water it forms both a mono- and dihydrate, C6H4(CHO)(CH(OH)2) and C6H4(CH(OH))2O, respectively. Its reactions with nucleophiles often involves the reaction of both carbonyl groups. (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA is used in a very sensitive fluorescent reagent for assaying amines or sulfhydryls in solution, notably contained in proteins, peptides, and amino acids, by capillary electrophoresis and chromatography. (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA reacts specifically with primary amines above their isoelectric point Pi in presence of thiols. OPA reacts also with thiols in presence of an amine such as n-propylamine or 2-aminoethanol. The method is spectrometric (fluorescent emission at 436-475 nm (max 455 nm) with excitation at 330-390 nm (max. 340 nm)). OPA (OrtoFitalaldehit) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) is commonly used as a high-level disinfectant for medical instruments, commonly sold under the brand names of Cidex OPA or TD-8. Disinfection with OPA (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) is indicated for semi-critical instruments that come into contact with mucous membranes or broken skin, such as specula, laryngeal mirrors, and internal ultrasound probes. Instruments that are not disposable and are fragile or sensitive to normal heat or steamsterilization procedures must be disinfected by low temperature chemical methods, such ashigh level disinfection (HLD). HLD kills all microorganisms in or on an instrument, except for small numbers of bacterial spores. Instruments requiring HLD usually contain electronic and fiber optic components, heat-sensitive glues, or flexible tubing. Examples include flexible endoscopes, laryngoscopes, respiratory therapy equipment, anesthesia equipment, rectal and vaginal probes, endotracheal tubes, nebulizer cups, and nasal specula. Glutaraldehyde (GTA) has been used for disinfecting heat-sensitive medical devices for more than 40 years. GTA is an eye and skin irritant, and has been reported to cause sensitization and occupational asthma. OPA (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) was introduced to the U.S. market as a safer alternative to GTA in 1999. OPA (Orto Fitalaldehit) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) was used for disinfection at the eight facilities that participated in our evaluation in two ways: manually and in automated endoscope reprocessors. Potential routes of exposure included dermal and inhalation. Exposure to (Orto Fitalaldehit) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA could occur during the following activities:
● Measuring and diluting concentrated (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA stock solution, and pouring OPA solution into or out of a cleaning container system (e.g., soaking basin in manual disinfecting operations and reservoir in automated processors)
● Opening the cleaning container system to immerse instruments to be disinfected
● Removing soaked instruments from the container system
● Rinsing the instruments containing residual (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA solution
● Disposing of used (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA solution to the sewer system
● Performing maintenance procedures, including filter or hose changes on automated processors that have not been pre-rinsed with water 
The concentration of (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA was checked with test strips regularly by employees to ensure that the solution met the minimum effective concentration needed to provide disinfection. The (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA solution was reused for several days and changed according to the manufacturer's directions or if the minimum effective concentration level was not met. The time spent handling or working with (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) OPA on the days it was used varied widely between facilities. In 2004, the first report of allergic reaction to OPA (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) was published. Anaphylaxis (a rapidly progressing, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction) was seen in patients who had medical procedures with endoscopes disinfected with (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA. Subsequent immunological testing indicated that Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA was the inciting agent [Suzukawa et al. 2007; Cooper et al. 2008; Pala and Moscato 2013]. Following reports of patient sensitization, reports of adverse occupationally related health effects surfaced. For example, a nurse soaking endoscopes in Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA reported respiratory symptoms while using Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) OPA about 100 minutes per day, 3 days per week. Repeated skin exposure has been found to cause dryness and cracking of the skin and may lead to skin and respiratory sensitization. o-Phthalaldehyde or ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) is the chemical compound with the formula C6H4(CHO)2. Often abbreviated (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) OPA Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde), the molecule is a dialdehyde, consisting of two formyl (CHO) groups attached to adjacent carbon centres on a benzene ring. This pale yellow solid is a building block in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds and a reagent in the analysis of amino acids. OPA Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) dissolves in water solution at pH < 11.5. Its solutions degrade upon UV illumination and exposure to air.OPA (OrtoFitalaldehit) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) can be polymerized. In the polymer, one of the oxygen atoms forms a bridge to the other non-ring carbon of the same phthalaldehyde unit, while the other bridges to a non-ring carbon of another phthalaldehyde unit. Poly(phthalaldehyde) is used in making a photoresist.Ortho-phthalaldehyde or OPA (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) is a dialdehyde used in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds and a reagent in the analysis of amino acids. OPA (Orto Fitalaldehit) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) is commonly used as a medical disinfectant in hospitals and as a surgical instrument sterilization solution for patient care. Ortho-phthalaldehyde can help disinfect a wide range of endoscopes and other heat sensitive semi-critical medical devices. Ortho-Phthalaldehyde (OPA) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) is an aromatic dialdehyde, used as a high-level antimicrobial disinfectant for medical equipment which is sensitive to normal heat or steam sterilization processes, including endoscope, cystoscopes, and certain dental instruments. For 40 years, glutaraldehyde, another dialdehyde, has been the primary choice for disinfecting heat-sensitive medical devices; however, it has been reported to be a chemical sensitizer. Glutaraldehyde is known to have high affinity for biological amines, and its use as a tissue fixative capitalizes on this property. As such, glutaraldehyde and dialdehydes as a chemical class can bind to native proteins, thus, altering their presentation to the immune system. Fluoraldehyde Reagent Solution contains (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) OPA (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (o-phthalaldehyde), which reacts with primary amines of amino acids, peptide and proteins to enable fluorescent detection and quantitation. The reagent that can be used as a protein or peptide assay reagent or as a pre- or post-column detection reagent for amino acid analysis (HPLC). Reaction of OPA (OrtoFitalaldehit) (OrthoPhthalaldehyde) (Orto Fitalaldehit) (Ortho Phthalaldehyde) (orto fital aldehit) (ortofital aldehit) (ortofitalaldehid) (ortofital aldehid) (orto fital aldehid) (orthophthal aldehyde) (ortho phthal aldehyde) (O- Phthalaldehyde) (Ortho-Phthalaldehyde) with proteins and peptides yields linear results over a wide range of concentrations. The Fluoraldehyde Reagent Solution is supplied ready to use and enables fast quantitation of proteins or peptides in solution.

 

 

Molecular Formula:C8H6O2
Molecular Weight:134.13
Density:1.19 g/mL
Melting Point:55.5-56 °C
Appearance:Yellow solid
Transport Information:25kgs

 

Ataman Kimya A.Ş. © 2015 Tüm Hakları Saklıdır.