1-9 A-D E-G H-M N-P Q-S T-Z

ACIDE SUCCINIQUE (SUCCINIC ACID)

SUCCINIC ACID (SÜKSİNİK ASİT)

 

CAS No. : 110-15-6
EC No. : 203-740-4

 

 

Synonyms:
SUCCINIC ACID; succınıc acıd; Succınıc Acıd; Succınıc acıd; SUCCİNİC ACİD; succinic acid; Succinic Acid; Succinic acid; SÜKSİNİK ASİT; Süksinik asit; süksinik asit; Süksinik Asit; SUKSİNİK ASİT; Suksinik asit; suksinik asit; Suksinik Asit; SÜKSINIK ASIT; Süksınık asıt; süksınık asıt; Süksınık Asıt; SUKSINIK ASIT; Suksınık asıt; suksınık asıt; Suksınık Asıt; Butanedioic acid; butanedioic acid; BUTANEDİOİC ACİD; Butanedioic Acid; bUTANEDİOİC ACİD; Succinic semialdehyde; dicarboxylic acid C4; ethylenesuccinic acid; succinic acid; butanedioic acid; 110-15-6; Asuccin; Amber acid; Dihydrofumaric acid; Katasuccin; ethylenesuccinic acid; Wormwood acid; succinate; Bernsteinsaure; 1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid; 1,4-Butanedioic acid; Wormwood; Butanedionic acid; Butandisaeure; Acidum succinicum; Kyselina jantarova; Butane diacid; Ethylene dicarboxylic acid; Spirit of amber; Bernsteinsaure [German]; Kyselina jantarova [Czech]; Ammonium succinate; HSDB 791; UNII-AB6MNQ6J6L; MFCD00002789; succ; NSC 106449; C4H6O4; AI3-06297; Succinic acid, 99%; EINECS 203-740-4; AB6MNQ6J6L; BRN 1754069; E363; CHEBI:15741; C4-beta-polymorph; NSC25949; Succinicum acidum; NCGC00159372-02; NCGC00159372-04; SUCCİNİC ACİD; succinic acid; 1,2 Ethanedicarboxylic Acid; 1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic Acid; 1,4 Butanedioic Acid; 1,4-Butanedioic Acid; Ammonium Succinate; Butanedioic Acid; Potassium Succinate; Succinate; Succinate, Ammonium; Succinate, Potassium; Succinic Acid; succinic acid; butanedioic acid;110-15-6; Amber acid; Asuccin; Dihydrofumaric acid; Bernsteinsaure; Katasuccin; Wormwood acid; succinate; ethylenesuccinic acid; 1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid; Wormwood; 1,4-Butanedioic acid; Butanedionic acid; Butandisaeure; Acidum succinicum ;Kyselina jantarova; Ethylene dicarboxylic acid; Spirit of amber; Succinicum acidum; Bernsteinsaure [German]; Succinellite; Kyselina jantarova [Czech]; acide succinique; Butane diacid; Sal succini; Acid of amber ;Ethanedicarboxylic acid; Ethylene succinic acid; succ; Bernsteinsaeure; Ammonium succinate; HSDB 791; UNII-AB6MNQ6J6L; Succinicun acidum; succinate, 9; acide butanedioique; NSC 106449; C4H6O4; AI3-06297; Succinic acid, 99%; Succinic acid (8CI); Butanedioic acid (9CI); EINECS 203-740-4; AB6MNQ6J6L; SUCCINIC ACID, ACS; BRN 1754069; E363; Butanedioic acid diammonium salt; CHEBI:15741; KDYFGRWQOYBRFD-UHFFFAOYSA-N;NSC25949; Amber acid, Butanedioic acid, Ethylenesuccinic acid; MFCD00002789; NCGC00159372-02; NCGC00159372-04; ethylenedicarboxylic acid; DSSTox_CID_3602; WLN: QV2VQ; Acid of amber; acidum succinicum; ACS, 99.0%; amber acid; asuccin; Bernsteinsaeure; Bernsteinsaure; Butandisaeure; BUTANE DIACID; BUTANEDIOICACID; Dihydrofumaric acid; Ethanedicarboxylic acid; Ethylene dicarboxylic acid; Ethylene succinic acid; FMR; fum; Fumaric acid [Wiki]; Katasuccin; Kyselina jantarova; Kyselina jantarova [Czech]; MAE; Maleic acid [Wiki]; MFCD00002789 [MDL number]; NCGC00159372-02; NCGC00159372-03; Sal succini; Salt of amber; ST5213944; Succinellite; Succinic Acid (SA); succinic acid 99%; succinic acid certified 500g; succinic acid(free acid); succinic acid, ??? 99.0%; succinic acid, 99%; succinic acid, 99+%; succinic acid, acs, 99.0% min; succinic acid, crystal, reagent, acs; succinic acid, reagent (acs); succinic acid, ultrapure; SUCCINIC ACID|BUTANEDIOIC ACID; UNII:AB6MNQ6J6L; UNII-AB6MNQ6J6L; Wormwood acid; Succinic acid, ACS reagent; DSSTox_RID_77102; A 12084; DSSTox_GSID_23602; SIN; succinicacid; sodium succinate (anhydrous); CAS-110-15-6; Succinic acid [NF]; Dihydrofumarate; Succinicate; Salt of amber; 1cze; Nat.Succinic Acid; 1,4-Butanedioate; Succinic acid, 6; Succinic acid, FCC; Succinic Acide,(S); Succinic Acid (SA); Succinic acid, natural; 4lh2; 1,2-Ethanedicarboxylate; Substrate analogue, 11; AC1L1AQW; 6283-68-7; bmse000183; bmse000968; CHEMBL576; Succinic Acid; Succinic acid; SÜKSİNİK ASİT; Süksinik asit; süksinik asit; Süksinik Asit; SUKSİNİK ASİT; Succinellite; ethylenedicarboxylic acid; acide succinique; Sal succini; Acid of amber; DSSTox_CID_3602; WLN: QV2VQ; Succinic acid, ACS reagent; DSSTox_RID_77102; DSSTox_GSID_23602; SIN; Ethylene succinic acid;Ethanedicarboxylic acid; succinicacid; Bernsteinsaeure; sodium succinate (anhydrous); succinate, 9; acide butanedioique; CAS-110-15-6; Succinic acid [NF]; Succinic acid (8CI); Butanedioic acid (9CI); Dihydrofumarate; Succinicate; succinic-acid; Butanedioic acid diammonium salt; Salt of amber; 1cze; Nat.Succinic Acid; 1,4-Butanedioate; Succinic acid, 6; Succinic acid, FCC;SUCCINIC ACID; succınıc acıd; Succınıc Acıd; Succınıc acıd; SUCCİNİC ACİD; succinic acid; Succinic Acid; Succinic acid; SÜKSİNİK ASİT; Süksinik asit; süksinik asit; Süksinik Asit; SUKSİNİK ASİT; Suksinik asit; suksinik asit; Suksinik Asit; SÜKSINIK ASIT; Süksınık asıt; süksınık asıt; Süksınık Asıt; SUKSINIK ASIT; Suksınık asıt; suksınık asıt; Suksınık Asıt; Butanedioic acid; butanedioic acid; BUTANEDİOİC ACİD; Butanedioic Acid; bUTANEDİOİC ACİD; Succinic semialdehyde; dicarboxylic acid C4; ethylenesuccinic acid; succinic acid; butanedioic acid; Succinic Acide,(S); Succinic Acid (SA); Succinic acid, natural; 4lh2; 1,2-Ethanedicarboxylate; Substrate analogue, 11; bmse000183; bmse000968; CHEMBL576; EC 203-740-4; HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH; A 12084; 4-02-00-01908 (Beilstein Handbook Reference); KSC175Q2B; ACMC-20995h; GTPL3637; DTXSID6023602; BDBM26121; CTK0H5820; KS-00000UER; ZINC895030; HY-N0420; STR02803; Tox21_111612; Tox21_201918; SÜKSİNİK ASİT; Tox21_303247; ANW-16131; BBL002473; LMFA01170043; NSC-25949; NSC106449; s3791; SBB040562; STK387105; Succinic acid, >=99%, FCC, FG; Succinic acid, BioXtra, >=99.0%; AKOS000118899; Tox21_111612_1; CCG-266069; DB00139; LS40373; MCULE-5889111640; NSC-106449; SuccinicAcid(IndustrialGrade&FoodGrade); NCGC00159372-03; NCGC00159372-05; NCGC00159372-06; NCGC00257092-01; NCGC00259467-01; Succinic acid, ACS reagent, >=99.0%; AK111253; BP-21128; I847; SC-47173; 98-EP2269610A2; 98-EP2269983A1; ACID SUCCINIC; acıd succınıc; SÜKSİNİK ASİT; Acıd Succınıc; acıd Succınıc; ACİD SUCCİNİC; acid succinic; Acid Succinic; acid Succinic; ASİT SÜKSİNİK; asit Süksinik; asit süksinik; Asit Süksinik; ASİT SUKSİNİK; asit Suksinik; asit suksinik; Asit Suksinik; ASIT SÜKSINIK; asıt Süksınık; asıt süksınık; Asıt Süksınık; ASIT SUKSINIK; asıt Suksınık; asıt suksınık; Asıt Suksınık; Succinic acid, ReagentPlus(R), >=99.0%; CS-0008946; FT-0652509; FT-0773657; N1941; NS00002272; S0100; ST50213944; Succinic acid, p.a., ACS reagent, 99.0%; Succinic acid, SAJ first grade, >=99.0%; T7308; SUCCINIC ACID HIGH PURITY GRADE 2.5KG; Succinic acid, purum p.a., >=99.0% (T); Succinic acid, SAJ special grade, >=99.5%; 1,4-BUTANEDIOIC ACID (SUCCINIC ACID); A14596; C00042; Succinic acid, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, 98%; 47632-EP2281817A1; 47632-EP2311811A1; AB01332192-02; 196539-EP2270007A1; Q213050; SR-01000944556; J-002386; SR-01000944556-2; Z57127453; F2191-0239; 37E8FFFB-70DA-4399-B724-476BD8715EF0; Succinic acid, certified reference material, TraceCERT(R); Succinic acid, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, >=99.5% (T); Succinic acid, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard; Succinic acid, matrix substance for MALDI-MS, >=99.5% (T), Ultra pure; Süksinik Asit; Süksünük Asit; Succinic acid, anhydrous, free-flowing, Redi-Dri(TM), ACS reagent, >=99.0%; Succinic acid, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture; Succinic Acid, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material; 1,2 Ethanedicarboxylic Acid; 1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic Acid; 1,4 Butanedioic Acid; 1,4-Butanedioic Acid; Ammonium Succinate; Butanedioic Acid; Potassium Succinate; Succinate; Succinate, Ammonium; Succinate, Potassium; Succinic Acid; 1D NMR Spectrum 1219 - Succinic acid (HMDB0000254); 1D NMR Spectrum 1285 - Succinic acid (HMDB0000254); 1D NMR Spectrum 2141 - Succinic acid (HMDB0000254); 1D NMR Spectrum 2829 - Succinic acid (HMDB0000254); 1D NMR Spectrum 4850 - Succinic acid (HMDB0000254); EI-MS Spectrum 1081 - Succinic acid (HMDB0000254); Succinic acid-2,2,3,3-d4; 1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid; 1,4-Butanedioic acid; 110-15-6 [RN]; 203-740-4 [EINECS]; 4-02-00-01908 [Beilstein]; Acide butanedioique [French]; Acide succinique [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]; Acido succinico [Italian]; ácido succínico [Spanish]; Ácido succínico [Portuguese]; acidum succinicum [Latin]; Bernsteinsaeure [German]; Bernsteinsäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]; Butanedioic acid [ACD/Index Name]; HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH [Formula]; Kyselina jantarova [Czech]; MFCD00002789 [MDL number]; QV2VQ [WLN]; Succinic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name] [Wiki]; Succinic acid; Ηλεκτρικό οξύ [Modern Greek (1453-)]; Янтарная кислота [Russian]; コハク酸 [Japanese]; 琥珀酸 [Chinese]; 14493-42-6 [RN]; 152556-05-3 [RN]; 21668-90-6 [RN]; 61128-08-3 [RN]; acidum succinicum; amber acid; asuccin; Bernsteinsaeure; Bernsteinsaure; Butandisaeure; BUTANE DIACID; BUTANEDIOICACID; CpeE protein; DB00139; Dihydrofumaric acid; Ethanedicarboxylic acid; Ethylene dicarboxylic acid; Ethylene succinic acid; FMR; fum; Fumaric acid [Wiki]; Katasuccin; Kyselina jantarova; MAE; Maleic acid [Wiki]; Sal succini; STR02803; Succinellite; Succinic acid 100 µg/mL in Acetonitrile; succinic acid(free acid); succunic acide; Wormwood acid; kehribar; kehribar taşı; Kehribar; Kehribar Taşı; kehlibar asidi; kehribar asidi; malik asit, monooksi süksinik asit; süksinik anhidrit; oksibenzoik asit, salisilik asit; 2-aminoetanesulfonik asit; abieninik asit; abiyetik asit; adenilik asit; alfa amino propiyonik asit; amber; anber; Amber; Anber; suksinik asit; süskünük asit; süskonik; asit; süskonik; süskünik; succinic; succınıc; acid; acıd; kehribar taşı asidi; kehribar taşı asit; acide succinique; SUCCINIC ACID; succınıc acıd; Succınıc Acıd; Succınıc acıd; SUCCİNİC ACİD; succinic acid; Succinic Acid; Succinic acid; SÜKSİNİK ASİT; Süksinik asit; süksinik asit; Süksinik Asit; SUKSİNİK ASİT; Suksinik asit; suksinik asit; Suksinik Asit; SÜKSINIK ASIT; Süksınık asıt; süksınık asıt; Süksınık Asıt; SUKSINIK ASIT; Suksınık asıt; suksınık asıt; Suksınık Asıt; Butanedioic acid; butanedioic acid; BUTANEDİOİC ACİD; Butanedioic Acid; bUTANEDİOİC ACİD; Succinic semialdehyd; acide butane; Acide butanedioïque; l'acide butane-1,4-dioïque; Succinic acid; SUCCINIC ACID; succinic acid; suksinik wen; butanedioic acid; 203-740-4; FDA UNII:AB6MNQ6J6L; Nikkaji Web:J2.879G; Beilstein Number:1754069; MDL:MFCD00002789; CoE Number: 24; XlogP3:-0.60 (est); Molecular Weight:118.08862000; Formula:C4 H6 O4; acidum succinicum; amber acid; asuccin; bernsteinsaure; butane dioic acid; 1,4-butane dioic acid; butane dionic acid; butanedioic acid; 1,4-butanedioic acid; dihydrofumaric acid; Amber Acid; 1,2-ethane dicarboxylic acid; 1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid; ethylene dicarboxylic acid; ethylene succinic acid; katasuccin; spirit of amber; bio-succinic acid; succinic acid FCC; succinic acid N.F. grade; succinic acid natural; succinic acid synthetic; succinic acid technical grade; succinicacid; wormwood acid; Succinic Acid 99%; HO2CCH2CH2CO2H; 118.09; MFCD00002789; Butanedioic acid; Succinic acid, 99%; InChI=1S/C10H18O4/c1-7(2)13-9(11)5-6-10(12)14-8(3)4/h7-8H,5-6H2,1-4H3; YPLYFEUBZLLLIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N; 924-88-9; Succinic acid diisopropyl ester; 202.2475; Succinate; Succinic acid; Butanedionic acid; Ethylenesuccinic acid; CAS: 110-15-6; PubChem:3344; ChEBI:15741; ChEMBL:CHEMBL576; Succinic Acid 2,2-Dimethylhydrazide; succinic acid; ChEBI ID; CHEBI:15741; InChI=1S/C4H6O4/c5-3(6)1-2-4(7)8/h1-2H2,(H,5,6)(H,7,8); InChIKey; KDYFGRWQOYBRFD-UHFFFAOYSA-N; SMILES OC(=O)CCC(O)=O; 1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid; ChemIDplus; acide butanedioïque Français ChEBI; acid succinique Français; ChEBI; acidum succinicum LINGUA LATINA; ChemIDplus;amber acid; NIST Chemistry WebBook; asuccin; NIST Chemistry WebBook; BernsteinsäureDeutsch; chEBI; Butandisäure Deutsch ChemIDplus; Butanedionic acid; KEGG COMPOUND; Dihydrofumaric acid HMDB; E363; ChEBI; Ethylenesuccinic acid; KEGGCOMPOUND; HOOC?CH2?CH2?COOHIUPAC; spirit of amber; ChEBI; Succinic acid;

 

 

 

 


ACIDE SUCCINIQUE

 

L'acide succinique est un diacide carboxylique aliphatique, dénommé également acide butane-1,4-dioïque et de formule semi-développée HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH.

 

L'acide succinique est présent dans tous les organismes vivants et intervient dans le métabolisme cellulaire, en particulier dans le métabolisme des lipides entre l'acide α-cétoglutarique et l'acide fumarique lors du cycle de Krebs dans la mitochondrie.
formule topologique de l'acide succinique

 

 

Origine de L'acide succinique
L'acide succinique a été extrait pour la première fois du succin ou ambre de la Baltique (ambre jaune), ce qui a contribué à sa dénomination. L'acide succinique se retrouve aussi dans le lignite, mais surtout, cette molécule du vivant, composé indispensable au processus d'oxydo-réduction cellulaire, peut être extrait de divers organismes végétaux et animaux. Citons la laitue vireuse, la grande chélidoine ou encore les organes comme la rate de bœuf ou les déjections cellulaires comme les urines.

 

 

Propriétés physico-chimiques de L'acide succinique
L'acide succinique se présente sous forme de poudre dont le point de fusion est 185 °C. Si on continue à chauffer jusque vers 235 °C, il donne l'anhydride succinique (en) qui se volatilise immédiatement. L'anhydride succinique de formule C4H4O3 est un solide qui fond à 120 °C.

 

L'acide succinique réagit facilement avec l'ammoniac NH3 pour donner des succinimides, avec le phénol pour engendrer des succinéides.

L'acide organique aux deux groupes carboxyles peut céder deux protons pour donner l'ion succinate, selon un équilibre acido-basique en solution aqueuse. C'est un acide faible : pKa1 = 4,2 et pKa2 = 5,6.

 

Marché, synthèse et production de L'acide succinique
L'acide succinique peut servir à synthétiser de nombreuses molécules d'intérêt médical ou commercial (ex : tétrahydrofurane). Le marché de L'acide succinique potentiel est estimé4 à plus de 2,5 M€.

 

L'acide succinique était produit industriellement à partir de dérivés du pétrole (acétylène et formaldéhyde), mais en 2008, un premier pilote industriel (installé en 2007 dans la bio-raffinerie de Pomacle-Bazancourt près de Reims, disposant d'une capacité de production de 2000t/an) a pu en produire à partir de sucres et résidus lignocellulosiques fermentés par E. Coli en atmosphère enrichie en CO25.

 

Acide succinique et vin
L'acide succinique entre également dans la composition du vin et du vinaigre et est toujours obtenu lors de la fermentation alcoolique du sucre en petites quantités, environ 1 g pour 100 g d'alcool. La formation d'acide succinique et de butane-2,3-diol à partir d'éthanal (acétaldéhyde) peut se résumer de la façon suivante :
acide succinique :

 

 

L'éthanal réagit avec l'eau pour former de l'acide succinique.
« Acide succinique [archive] » dans la base de données de produits chimiques Reptox de la CSST (organisme québécois responsable de la sécurité et de la santé au travail), consulté le 25 avril 2009
L'Usine Nouvelle, « Bioamber investit dans la production d'acide succinique d'origine végétale - Quotidien des Usines », usinenouvelle.com/,‎ 18 décembre 2008 (lire en ligne [archive], consulté le 18 avril 2018)
Démarrage de la première usine commercial d'acide succinique d'origine vététale; Art. de Biofutur, mars 2010, p. 21

 

L'acide succinique est une molécule biologique. © Ben Mills, Wikimedia, domaine public

L'acide succinique est un acide présent dans tous les organismes vivants, premièrement identifié dans le succin (aussi appelé ambre jaune), d'où son nom.

 

Structure de l'acide succinique
L'acide succinique a pour formule développée HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH. C'est donc un diacide carboxylique, du fait de la présence de deux groupements carboxyliques.

 

 


Fonction de l'acide succinique
L'acide succinique est obtenu par fermentation du sucre, il est donc un composant du vin, auquel il donne un goût salé, acide et amer. Il est aussi utilisé comme complément alimentaire ou comme excipient.

 

acide succinique \a.sid syk.si.nik\ masculin invariable

 

(Chimie) Acide dicarboxylique de formule brute C4H6O4 et de formule semi-développée OH-CO-CH2-CH2-CO-OH, présent dans toutes les cellules vivantes comme intermédiaire métabolique et précurseur de nombreux composés d'importance physiologique, incluant des lipides, des glucides, des acides aminés, etc.
Le nom officiel UICPA de l'acide succinique est l'acide butane-1,4-dioïque.
Vocabulaire apparenté par le sens
acide fumarique (acide produit par l'oxydation de l'acide succinique)
succinyl-coA (groupe succinyle conjugué au coenzyme A, et précurseur de l'acide succinique)

 

Améliorez l'empreinte environnementale de vos produits avec l'acide bio-succinique à la pointe du progrès.

 

Acide succinique
L'acide succinique est un produit chimique utilisé directement dans diverses applications industrielles et comme intermédiaire pour la production de polymères et résines. Traditionnellement, il ne pouvait être produit qu'à partir de pétrole brut et de gaz naturel. Biosuccinium® offre une alternative renouvelable. Biosuccinium® est produit via un procédé de fermentation breveté à partir de biomasse durable.

 

En plus d'être une solution de remplacement pour l'acide succinique à base de pétrole, il peut également remplacer l'acide adipique à base de pétrole. Comparé aux di-acides traditionnels, l'empreinte environnementale de BIOSUCCINIUM® est bien meilleure, ce qui permet aux produits chimiques de la chaîne de valeur de répondre à vos exigences en matière de développement durable.

L'acide succinique biosourcé en compétition avec les dérivés pétroliers

Le rapport sur l'acide succinique montre un décalage entre les estimations de l'offre et de la demande. En effet, il existe une réelle compétitivité entre l'acide succinique biosourcé et d'origine fossile : les estimations d'évolution du marché du pétrole ont entraîné un fort attrait pour l'acide succinique biosourcé, même si le prix du baril reste inférieur aux prédictions. De plus, la demande en 1,4-butanediol, considéré comme un marché pour l'acide succinique d'origine biologique, n'a pas suivi les attentes du marché, et aucune unité de production ne devrait devenir commerciale avant 2023. Jusqu'à cette date au moins, le marché de l'acide succinique devrait se limiter aux applications de spécialités, telles que le polymère de polybutylène succinate (PBS) biosourcé et les revêtements. L'évolution du marché de l'acide succinique sera fortement dépendante de l'évolution du prix du pétrole.

 


Bio-PBS : Reverdia et l'université de Wageningue lancent un projet de R&D
Acide succinique biosourcé : Reverdia expose à Chinaplast
Chimie du végétal : Délivrance de brevets pour Reverdia dans l'acide succinique biosourcé
Acide succinique : Marcel Lubben promu à la tête de Reverdia
L'acide succinique de Reverdia déployé en Afrique et Australie
Ce contenu a été publié dans Actualités par Dinhill On, et marqué avec acide succinique, DSM, Reverdia, Roquette. Mettez-le en favori avec son permalien.
ARTICLES RÉCENTS
Matériaux : Kuraray investit dans un projet de R&D d'alternative au plastique
Emballage : Stora Enso investit 10 M€ dans les revêtements barrières
Justice : Lavvan demande 881 M$ de dommages et intérêts à Amyris
Covid-19 : Les biocarburants subissent la crise
Dépollution : Bioinspir lève 1 M€
ABONNEMENT MAGAZINE
Abonnement

 

 

Climat: la nouvelle feuille de route européenne
L'industrie automobile française au régime allégé ?
KLM : Greenpeace lance un ultimatum aux Pays-Bas
Le congrès mondial de l'UICN est de nouveau reporté
Amorce attend de pied ferme la fin des plastiques non recyclables

 

 


Acide succinique : des propriétés anti-acnéiques démontrées
Une nouvelle étude vient de confirmer les effets antimicrobiens de Biosuccinium S, acide succinique biosourcé de Reverdia.

 

 

L'acide succinique, ou plus exactement l'acide butane-1,4-dioïque, est directement synonyme d'acide succinique, expression à laquelle on se référera. La formule brute de ce diacide est C4H6O4 et la formule semi-développée est HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH.
Lire plus: https://www.aquaportail.com/definition-11170-acide-butanedioique.html

 

 

Utilisations thérapeutiques de l'acide succinique
L'acide succinique (100 mM) a inhibé de manière significative l'anaphylaxie systémique induite par le composé 48/80 / un puissant dégranulateur de mastocytes / chez la souris et a inhibé de manière dose-dépendante l'anaphylaxie locale activée par anti-dinitrophényl IgE. En outre, 10 et 100 mM ont inhibé de manière significative la libération d'histamine à partir de mastocytes péritonéaux de rat activés par le composé 48/80 ou anti-dinitrophényl IgE. De plus, l'acide succinique (0,1 et 1 mM) avait un effet inhibiteur significatif sur la sécrétion du facteur de nécrose tumorale alpha induite par les IgE anti-dinitrophényl par les mastocytes péritonéaux de rat. Le niveau d'AMP cyclique dans les mastocytes péritonéaux de rat, lorsque l'acide succinique (100 mM) a été ajouté, a augmenté de façon transitoire et significativement environ 4 fois par rapport à celui des cellules basales. Ces résultats suggèrent une utilisation possible de l'acide succinique dans la prise en charge de l'anaphylaxie dépendante des mastocytes.

 

 

Mécanisme d'action de l'acide succinique
Le succinate est un composant essentiel du cycle de Krebs ou de l'acide citrique et sert un donneur d'électrons dans la production d'acide fumarique et de FADH2. Il s'est également avéré être un bon antibiotique «naturel» en raison de sa relative nature acide ou caustique (des concentrations élevées peuvent même provoquer des brûlures). Il a été démontré que les suppléments de succinate aident à réduire les effets de la gueule de bois en activant la dégradation de l'acétaldéhyde - un sous-produit toxique du métabolisme de l'alcool - en CO2 et H2O par métabolisme aérobie. Il a été démontré que l'acide succinique stimule la récupération du système neuronal et renforce le système immunitaire. Des affirmations ont également été faites qu'il stimule la conscience, la concentration et les réflexes.

 

 

L '"acide succinique" est utile, non toxique, stable et inoffensif pour le corps humain. Il est généré dans un cycle d'acide citrique (enzyme acide succinique déshydraté) et d'acide asuccinique-glycine à travers le processus de métabolisme et devient finalement de l'énergie. L'acide succinique (Succinic Acid) est produit industriellement par hydrogénation de l'anhydride maléique. L'acide succinique (Succinic Acid) est un agent nanifiant qui peut affecter l'initiation des bourgeons à fruits, le 2,2-diméthylhydazide, le daminozide. L'acide succinique (Succinic Acid) est l'acide An?,? - dicarboxylique résultant de l'oxydation formelle de chacun des groupes méthyle terminaux du butane en le groupe carboxy correspondant. C'est un métabolite intermédiaire dans le cycle de l'acide citrique. L'acide succinique (Succinic Acid) (acide butanedioïque) est un acide dicarboxylique. C'est un intermédiaire commun dans la voie métabolique de plusieurs micro-organismes anaérobies et facultatifs.
L'acide succinique (Succinic Acid) est utilisé comme complément alimentaire pour les symptômes liés à la ménopause tels que les bouffées de chaleur et l'irritabilité. Il est utilisé comme agent aromatisant pour les aliments et les boissons. Il est utilisé pour fabriquer des polyuréthanes, des peintures et des revêtements, des adhésifs, des mastics, des cuirs artificiels, des cosmétiques et des produits de soins personnels, des plastiques biodégradables, des nylons, des lubrifiants industriels, des plastifiants sans phtalates, des colorants et des pigments. Dans l'industrie pharmaceutique, il est utilisé dans la préparation de succinate de calcium actif, comme matière de départ pour des ingrédients pharmaceutiques actifs (acide adipique, N-méthyl pyrrolidinone, 2-pyrrolidinone, sels de succinate, etc.), comme additif dans la formation de médicaments, pour les médicaments de sédatif, antispasmer, antiplegm, antiphogistique, anrhoter, contraception et traitement du cancer, dans la préparation de vitamine A et anti-inflammatoire, et comme antidote pour une substance toxique.

 

 

 

L'acide succinique (Succinic Acid) est un acide dicarboxylique de formule chimique (CH2) 2 (CO2H) 2. Le nom dérive du latin succinum, qui signifie ambre. Dans les organismes vivants, L'acide succinique (Succinic Acid) prend la forme d'un anion, le succinate, qui a de multiples rôles biologiques en tant qu'intermédiaire métabolique converti en fumarate par l'enzyme succinate déshydrogénase dans le complexe 2 de la chaîne de transport d'électrons qui participe à la fabrication de l'ATP, et en tant que molécule de signalisation reflétant l'état métabolique cellulaire. Le succinate est généré dans les mitochondries via le cycle de l'acide tricarboxylique (TCA), un processus générateur d'énergie partagé par tous les organismes.
Le succinate peut sortir de la matrice mitochondriale et fonctionner dans le cytoplasme ainsi que l'espace extracellulaire, changer les schémas d'expression des gènes, moduler le paysage épigénétique ou démontrer une signalisation de type hormonal. En tant que tel, le succinate relie le métabolisme cellulaire, en particulier la formation d'ATP, à la régulation de la fonction cellulaire. La dérégulation de la synthèse du succinate, et donc de la synthèse de l'ATP, se produit dans certaines maladies génétiques mitochondriales, telles que la maladie de Leighs et la maladie de Melas, et la dégradation peut conduire à des conditions pathologiques, telles que la transformation maligne, l'inflammation et les lésions tissulaires. L'acide succinate ou succinique est impliqué dans plusieurs processus chimiques dans le corps. Dans les suppléments, il est utilisé pour les symptômes liés à la ménopause tels que les bouffées de chaleur et l'irritabilité. Le succinate est également appliqué sur la peau pour l'arthrite et les douleurs articulaires. Le kit de test d'acide succinique convient au dosage spécifique du succinicacide dans le vin, le fromage, les œufs, la sauce et d'autres produits alimentaires. Processus de L'acide succinique (Succinic Acid) basé sur des ressources renouvelables et un micro-organisme propriétaire hautement performant, captant le CO2. Alternative économiquement et écologiquement intéressante aux matières premières pétrochimiques.
Le produit est utilisé comme élément de base pour la production de polyuréthanes, de résines, de succinate de polybutylène (PBS) et de plastifiants, ainsi que comme précurseur de produits chimiques tels que le 1,4 butanediol (BDO). Cependant, la volatilité des prix du pétrole brut affectera les prix du produit, limitant ainsi la demande. En outre, la forte croissance de la production d'acide bio-succinique due à l'augmentation de la popularité des produits verts parmi les fabricants de produits chimiques devrait remettre en cause la demande au cours des sept prochaines années.
L'acide succincique également connu sous le nom d'acide ambré, a été utilisé en Europe comme analgésique naturel et agent de guérison ainsi que comme antibiotique naturel et curatif général pendant des siècles. L'ambre baltique naturel est riche en acide succinique, un constituant naturel des tissus végétaux et animaux et contient jusqu'à 8% en poids. On pense que les ambergems sont un antioxydant très puissant qui peut aider à lutter contre les radicaux libres toxiques et les perturbations du rythme cardiaque. L'acide succinique (Succinic Acid) avait été montré pour stimuler la récupération du système neuronal et renforcer le système immunitaire, et peut également aider à compenser la fuite d'énergie dans le corps et le cerveau, à stimuler la conscience, la concentration et les réflexes, et à réduire le stress.

 

L'acide succinique (Succinic Acid) (acide butanedioïque) est un acide dicarboxylique qui se produit naturellement dans les tissus végétaux et animaux. Le produit chimique est également connu sous le nom de «Spirit of Amber». Lorsque L'acide succinique (Succinic Acid) a été découvert pour la première fois, il a été extrait de l'ambre en le pulvérisant et en le distillant à l'aide d'un bain de sable. Il était principalement utilisé à l'extérieur pour les douleurs et les douleurs rhumatismales.

Des esters presque infinis peuvent être obtenus à partir d'acides carboxyliques. Les esters sont produits en combinant un acide avec un alcool et en éliminant une molécule d'eau. Les esters d'acide carboxylique sont utilisés dans une variété d'applications directes et indirectes.

Les esters à chaîne inférieure sont utilisés comme matières de base aromatisantes, plastifiants, supports de solvants et agents de couplage. Les composés à chaîne supérieure sont utilisés comme composants dans les fluides de travail des métaux, les tensioactifs, les lubrifiants, les détergents, les agents huilants, les émulsifiants, les agents mouillants, les traitements textiles et les émollients.

Les esters sont également utilisés comme intermédiaires pour la fabrication d'une variété de composés cibles. Les esters presque infinis offrent une large gamme de viscosité, de gravité spécifique, de pression de vapeur, de point d'ébullition et d'autres propriétés physiques et chimiques pour les sélections d'application appropriées.

 

Applications
L'acide succinique (Succinic Acid) est utilisé comme agent aromatisant pour les aliments et les boissons. Produisant cinq composés hétérocycliques, L'acide succinique (Succinic Acid) est utilisé comme intermédiaire pour les colorants, les parfums, les laques, les produits chimiques photographiques, les résines alkydes, les plastifiants, les produits chimiques de traitement des métaux et les revêtements. L'acide succinique (Succinic Acid) est également utilisé dans la fabrication de médicaments pour sédatifs, antispasmers, antiplegm, antiphogistic, anrhoers, contraceptifs et cancer-curing.

 

 

 


SUCCINIC ACID

 

 

Therapeutic Uses of Succinic acid
Succinic acid (100 mM) significantly inhibited systemic anaphylaxis induced by compound 48/80 /a potent mast cell degranulator/ in mice and dose-dependently inhibited local anaphylaxis activated by anti-dinitrophenyl IgE. Further 10 and 100 mM significantly inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells activated by compound 48/80 or anti-dinitrophenyl IgE. In addition succinic acid (0.1 and 1 mM) had a significant inhibitory effect on anti-dinitrophenyl IgE-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion from rat peritoneal mast cells. The level of cyclic AMP in rat peritoneal mast cells, when succinic acid (100 mM) was added, transiently and significantly increased about 4 times compared with that of basal cells. These results suggest a possible use of succinic acid in managing mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis.

 

 

Mechanism of Action of Succinic acid
Succinate is an essential component of the Krebs or citric acid cycle and serves an electron donor in the production of fumaric acid and FADH2. It also has been shown to be a good "natural" antibiotic because of its relative acidic or caustic nature (high concentrations can even cause burns). Succinate supplements have been shown to help reduce the effects of hangovers by activating the degradation of acetaldehyde - a toxic byproduct of alcohol metabolism - into CO2 and H2O through aerobic metabolism. Succinic acid has been shown to stimulate neural system recovery and bolster the immune system. Claims have also been made that it boosts awareness, concentration and reflexes.

 

 

Metabolite Description of Succinic acid
Succinic acid, also known as butanedionic acid or succinate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups. Succinic acid is a drug which is used for nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance. Succinic acid exists as a solid, soluble (in water), and a weakly acidic compound (based on its pKa). Succinic acid has been found throughout most human tissues, and has also been detected in most biofluids, including cerebrospinal fluid, breast milk, sweat, and blood. Within the cell, succinic acid is primarily located in the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisome and cytoplasm. Succinic acid exists in all eukaryotes, ranging from yeast to humans. Succinic acid participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, Succinic acid can be biosynthesized from succinic acid semialdehyde; which is mediated by the enzyme succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial. Furthermore, Succinic acid can be converted into fumaric acid; which is catalyzed by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase. Finally, Succinic acid can be biosynthesized from acetoacetic acid and succinyl-CoA through the action of the enzyme succinyl-coa:3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase 1, mitochondrial. In humans, succinic acid is involved in the oncogenic action OF 2-hydroxyglutarate pathway, the citric Acid cycle pathway, the phytanic Acid peroxisomal oxidation pathway, and the ketone body metabolism pathway. Succinic acid is also involved in several metabolic disorders, some of which include the hyperornithinemia with gyrate atrophy (hoga) pathway, the isovaleric aciduria pathway, the 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III pathway, and the hyperprolinemia type II pathway. Succinic acid is an odorless and sour tasting compound that can be found in a number of food items such as onion-family vegetables, dock, common walnut, and tarragon. This makes succinic acid a potential biomarker for the consumption of these food products. Succinic acid is a potentially toxic compound. Succinic acid has been found to be associated with several diseases known as lung cancer, lipoyltransferase 1 deficiency, canavan disease, and alzheimer's disease; succinic acid has also been linked to the inborn metabolic disorders including d-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria.

 

 

Uses of succinic acid range from scientific applications such as radiation dosimetry and standard buffer solutions to applications in agriculture, food, medicine, plastics, cosmetics, textiles, plating, and waste-gas scrubbing. Succinic acid is used as starting material in the manufacture of alkyd resins, dyes, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. Reaction with glycols gives polyesters; esters formed by reaction with monoalcohols are important plasticizers and lubricants.
Hydrogenation of maleic acid, maleic anhydride, or fumaric acid produces good yields of succinic acid.
1,4-Butanediol can be oxidized to succinic acid in several ways: (1) with O2 in an aqueous solution of an alkaline-earth hydroxide at 90-110 °C in the presence of Pd-C; (2) by ozonolysis in aqueous acetic acid; or (3) by reaction with N2O4 at low temperature.
Succinic acid can ... be obtained by phase-transfer-catalyzed reaction of 2-haloacetates, electrolytic dimerization of bromoacetic acid or ester, oxidation of 3-cyanopropanal, and fermentation of n-alkanes.
Succinic acid is derived from fermentation of ammonium tartrate.

 

 

Analytic Laboratory Methods of Succinic acid
Method: AOAC Method 970.31; Procedure: gas chromatographic method; Analyte: succinic acid; Matrix: eggs; Detection Level: not provided.
Method: AOAC 948.14; Procedure: ether extraction method; Analyte: succinic acid; Matrix: eggs; Detection Level: not provided.

 

 

Incineration: Succinic acid should be combined with paper or other flammable material. An alternate procedure is to dissolve it in a flammable solvent and spray the solutions into the fire chamber.
Succinic acid is produced, as an intermediate or a final product, by process units covered under this subpart.

 

 

Succinic acid used as a general purpose food additive in animal drugs, feeds, and related products is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice.
Succinic acid is a food additive permitted for direct addition to food for human consumption, as long as 1) the quantity of the substance added to food does not exceed the amount reasonably required to accomplish its intended physical, nutritive, or other technical effect in food, and 2) any substance intended for use in or on food is of appropriate food grade and is prepared and handled as a food ingredient.

 

 

/LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ Succinic acid is slight skin irritant and a strong eye irritant in rats. Application of 750 ug of succinic acid as a 15% solution produced severe damage in rabbit eyes. The clinical signs of acute toxicity in rats are weakness and diarrhea.
Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure/ Administration of 500 mg/100 g/day for 20 days to rats 60 days post-operative after induction of bladder stone formation. Stone formation in 36% of animals treated with succinic acid, 60% in controls.

 

Succinic acid's production and use in the manufacture of lacquers, dyes, esters for perfumes, in photography, and in foods as a sequestrant, buffer and neutralizing agent may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. Succinic acid is a constituent of almost all plant and animal tissues as it is a normal intermediary metabolite, being a component of the Kreb's Cycle. If released into the atmosphere, succinic acid is expected to exist in both the particulate and vapor phases in the ambient atmosphere based on an extrapolated vapor pressure of 1.91X10-7 mm Hg at 25 °C. Vapor-phase succinic acid will be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals with an estimated half-life of about 6 days. Particulate-phase succinic acid will be physically removed from the atmosphere by wet and dry deposition. If released to soil, an estimated Koc of 11 indicates that succinic acid is expected to have very high mobility in soil. Volatilization from dry and wet soil surfaces is not expected to occur based on this compound's extrapolated vapor pressure and an estimated Henry's Law constant of 3.6X10-13 atm-cu m/mole at 25 °C, respectively. Biodegradation of succinic acid in both soil and water is expected to be an important fate process based on a theoretical BOD of 78% measured using the MITI test. If released into water, succinic acid is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediments in the water column based on its estimated Koc. The potential for bioconcentration of succinic acid in aquatic organisms is low based on an estimated BCF of 3. Volatilization from water surfaces is not expected to be important based on pKas of 4.16 and 5.6 (anions do not volatilize) and the estimated Henry's Law constant of the free acid.Hydrolysis is not expected to be an important environmental fate process since this compound lacks functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions. Occupational exposure to succinic acid may occur through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where succinic acid is produced or used. Monitoring data indicate that the general population may be exposed to succinic acid via inhalation of ambient air, ingestion of food and drinking water, and dermal contact with consumer products containing succinic acid. (SRC)

 

Succinic acid has been observed in distillate from amber and occurs in fossils, fungi, lichens etc(1). It is a constituent of almost all plant and animal tissues and has also been found in meteorites(2).
Succinic acid is a normal intermediary metabolite and a constituent of the citric acid cycle /Kreb's Cycle/.
Succinic acid's production and use in the manufacture of lacquers, dyes, esters for perfumes, in photography(1) and in foods as a sequestrant, buffer and neutralizing agent(2) may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams(SRC).

 

 

Environmental Fate of Succinic acid
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), an estimated Koc value of 11(SRC), determined from a log Kow of -0.59(2) and a regression-derived equation(3), indicates that succinic acid is expected to have very high mobility in soil(SRC). Volatilization of succinic acid from moist soil surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process(SRC) given an estimated Henry's Law constant of 3.6X10-13 atm-cu m/mole(SRC), derived from its vapor pressure, 1.91X10-7 mm Hg(4), and water solubility, 8.32X10+4 mg/L(5). Succinic acid is not expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces(SRC) based upon its vapor pressure of 1.91X10-7 mm Hg at 25 °C(4). The anion form, which is the dominant form in the environment (pKa 4.16 and 5.6), will also not volatilize(SRC). Succinic acid has been observed to biodegrade in soil at rates ranging from 52 to 89% in 7 days to 71 to 95% in 84 days at an initial concn of 1000 ppm(6), suggesting biodegration may be an important environmental fate process in soil.

 

AQUATIC FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), an estimated Koc value of 11(SRC), determined from a log Kow of -0.59(2) and a regression-derived equation(3), indicates that succinic acid is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment(SRC). Volatilization from water surfaces is not expected(3) based upon an estimated Henry's Law constant of 3.6X10-13 atm-cu m/mole(SRC), derived from its vapor pressure, 1.91X10-7 mm Hg(4), and water solubility, 8.32X1+4 mg/L(5). One of the pKa values of succinic acid is 4.21(6), indicating that this compound will exist in the dissociated form in the environment and anions generally do not adsorb more strongly to suspended solids and sediment than their neutral counterparts(7), and will not volatilize. According to a classification scheme(8), an estimated BCF of 3(SRC), from its log Kow(2) and a regression-derived equation(9), suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC). Succinic acid, present at 100 mg/L, reached 78% of its theoretical BOD in 14 days using an activated sludge inoculum at 30 mg/L and the Japanese MITI test(10), suggesting biodegradation may be an important environmental fate process in water.

ATMOSPHERIC FATE: According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere(1), succinic acid, which has a vapor pressure of 1.91X10-7 mm Hg at 25 °C(2), is expected to exist in both the vapor and particulate phases in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase succinic acid is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals(SRC); the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 6 days(SRC), calculated from its rate constant of 2.8X10-12 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 °C that was derived using a structure estimation method(3). Particulate-phase succinic acid may be removed from the air by wet and dry deposition(SRC).

 


Environmental Biodegradation of Succinic acid
AEROBIC: Succinic acid has been observed to biodegrade in soil at rates ranging from 52 to 89% in 7 days to 71 to 95% in 84 days at an initial concn of 1000 ppm(1). Succinic acid reached 35% of its theoretical BOD in 5 days using a sewage inoculum(2). In a Warburg test using a sewage seed, succinic acid reached 67.5% of its theoretical BOD in 5 days(3). In a Warburg test using an activated sludge inoculum, succinic acid (concentration of 500 ppm) reached 11.2%, 27.2%, and 42.4% of its theoretical BOD in 6, 12, and 24 hours, respectively(4). In a Warburg test using an activated sludge inoculum acclimated to phenol, succinic acid, present at a concn of 500 ppm, reached 57% of its theoretical BOD after 12 hours(5). In screening tests, succinic acid, present at a concn of 5 ppm, reached 73.9% and 73.6% of its theoretical BOD in 5 days in water and seawater, respectively(6). In screening tests, succinic acid, present at a concn of 2 and 5 ppm, reached 72.8% and 73.2% of its theoretical BOD in 5 days, respectively in seawater and water, respectively(6). Succinate was observed to degrade in a soil study, based on carbon dioxide evolution, using Pahokee muck at rates ranging from 1.18 to 1.97 14CO2 evolution (14C%/cu cm soil min) in Oct for fallow soil and soil planted with grass, respectively; 0.56 to 0.82 14CO2 evolution (14C%/cu cm soil min) in Jan for fallow soil and soil planted with grass, respectively(7). Succinic acid, present at 100 mg/L, reached 78% of its theoretical BOD in 14 days using an activated sludge inoculum at 30 mg/L and the Japanese MITI test(8).
ANAEROBIC: Succinic acid was identified as being amenable to anaerobic biodegradation(1). After a lag period of 10 days, succinic acid was metabolized at a rate of 110 mg/l day by anaerobic bacteria acclimated to acetate culture(2).

 

 


The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of succinic acid with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals has been estimated as 2.8X10-12 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 °C(SRC) using a structure estimation method(1). This corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 6 days at an atmospheric concentration of 5X10+5 hydroxyl radicals per cu cm(1). Succinic acid is not expected to undergo hydrolysis in the environment due to the lack of hydrolyzable functional groups(2). The rate constant for the reaction of succinic acid with hydroxyl radicals in aqueous solution has been measured as 3.1X10+8 L/mol sec(3).
An estimated BCF of 3 was calculated for succinic acid (SRC), using a log Kow of -0.59(1) and a regression-derived equation(2).
The Koc of succinic acid is estimated as 11(SRC), using a log Kow of -0.59(1) and a regression-derived equation(2). According to a classification scheme(3), this estimated Koc value suggests that succinic acid is expected to have very high mobility in soil. One of the pKa values of succinic acid is 4.21(4), indicating that this compound will exist in anion form in the environment and anions generally do not adsorb more strongly to organic carbon and clay than their neutral counterparts(5).
The Henry's Law constant for succinic acid is estimated as 3.6X10-13 atm-cu m/mole(SRC) derived from its vapor pressure, 1.91X10-7 mm Hg(1), and water solubility, 8.32X10+4 mg/L(2). This Henry's Law constant indicates that succinic acid is expected to be essentially nonvolatile from water surfaces(3). The anion form, which is the dominant form in the environment (pKa 4.16 and 5.6(4)), will also not volatilize(SRC). Succinic acid is not expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces(SRC) based upon its vapor pressure(1).
RAIN/SNOW: Succinic acid was identified in rainwater from Niwot Ridge, CO at an unspecified concn(1). Succinic acid was detected in rain and snow samples collected from Southern California at concns ranging from 0.034 to 3.8 uM(2). Rain and snow samples collected from Ithaca, NY and Hubbard Brook, NH between June 1976 and May 1977 contained succinic acid at concns ranging from 0.1 umol/94 cm precipitation to 0.1 umol/75 cm precipitation(3). Wet precipitation samples (snow, sleet, rain) collected from Tokyo in 1992 contained succinic acid at concns ranging from 1.28 ug/l to 95.5 ug/l(4). Succinic acid was identified in treated water at an unspecified concn from an unspecified location(5).
Succinic acid has been identified as a component of pulp mill effluent(1).

 

 


URBAN/SUBURBAN: Succinic acid was detected in Los Angeles air samples, collected in June and Oct 1984, at concns ranging from 0.66 to 2.37 nmol/cu m in West Los Angeles and 1.84 to 2.13 nmol/cu m in downtown Los Angeles(1). Dust samples from downtown Los Angeles and a UCLA campus building contained succinic acid at concns of 268 and 406 nmol/cu m, respectively(1). Succinic acid was detected in aerosol samples from urban Tokyo at an average concn of 37 ng/cu m between 1988-89(2). Succinic acid was detected in airborne aerosols from Schenectady, NY collected during Oct 1991 at concns ranging from 55 to 167 ng/cu m(3). Succinic acid was detected in atmospheric aerosols collected from Tsukuba, Japan(4). The average ambient annual concn of succinic acid in fine particles collected from West Los Angeles, downtown Los Angeles, Pasadena, Rubidoux, and San Nicolas Island, CA in 1982 was 55.0, 66.5, 51.2, 84.1, and <0.02 ng/cu m, respectively(5). The average concn of succinic acid in airborne aerosols collected from Takasaki and Karuizawa, Japan in July 1986 was 25.0 and 21.0 ng/cu m, respectively(6). The average daytime concn of succinic acid in air samples collected from Takasaki and Karuizawa, Japan in July 1986 was 47.1 and 36.4 ng/cu m, respectively(7). The ambient concn of succinic acid in West Los Angeles in Oct. 1982 was 14.1 ng/cu m(8). Aerosol samples collected from Tokyo in Feb and July 1992 contained succinic acid at concns ranging from 139 to 279 ng/cu m(9).

 

 


Succinic acid was identified as a flavoring constituent of gari, 0.04% and farine, 0.002%(1). Aerosol emission rates of succinic acid from frying hamburger meat was 2.3 mg/kg of meat cooked; emission rates from charbroiling hamburger was 7.6 mg/kg of meat cooked for extra-lean hamburger (approx. 10.0% fat) and 12.0 mg/kg of meat cooked for regular hamburger (approx. 21% fat)(2).
NIOSH (NOES Survey 1981-1983) has statistically estimated that 31,198 workers (16,182 of these are female) are potentially exposed to succinic acid in the US(1). Occupational exposure to succinic acid may occur through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where succinic acid is produced or used(SRC). Monitoring data indicate that the general population may be exposed to succinic acid via inhalation of ambient air, ingestion of food and drinking water, and dermal contact with consumer products containing succinic acid(SRC).

 

 

FDA Food Additive Status of Succinic acid
Succinic acid - GRAS/FS - Acidified Skim Milk - 131.144; MISC, GRAS, GMP - 184.1091; In animal feeds - 582.1091

 

 

Metabolism/Metabolites HelpNew Window of Succinic acid
Succinic acid is a normal intermediary metabolite and a constituent of the citric acid cycle. It is readily metabolized when administered to animals, but may be partly excreted unchanged in the urine if large doses are fed.

 

 

Absorption, Distribution and Excretion of Succinic acid
Succinic acid occurs normally in human urine (1.9-8.8 mg/L).

 

Butanedioic acid (Succinic acid) is a known environmental transformation product of Sulcotrione.

Succinic acid is a known environmental transformation product of Linuron.

Succinic acid (/səkˈsɪnɪk/) is a dicarboxylic acid with the chemical formula (CH2)2(CO2H)2.[5] The name Succinic acid derives from Latin succinum, meaning amber. In living organisms, succinic acid takes the form of an anion, succinate, which has multiple biological roles as a metabolic intermediate being converted into fumarate by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase in complex 2 of the electron transport chain which is involved in making ATP, and as a signaling molecule reflecting the cellular metabolic state.[6] Succinic acid is marketed as food additive E363. Succinate is generated in mitochondria via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). Succinate can exit the mitochondrial matrix and function in the cytoplasm as well as the extracellular space, changing gene expression patterns, modulating epigenetic landscape or demonstrating hormone-like signaling.[6] As such, succinate links cellular metabolism, especially ATP formation, to the regulation of cellular function. Dysregulation of succinate synthesis, and therefore ATP synthesis, happens in some genetic mitochondrial diseases, such as Leigh syndrome, and Melas syndrome, and degradation can lead to pathological conditions, such as malignant transformation, inflammation and tissue injury.

 

Other names of Succinic acid
1,4-Butanedioic acid

 

Physical properties of Succinic acid

Succinic acid is a white, odorless solid with a highly acidic taste.[5] In an aqueous solution, succinic acid readily ionizes to form its conjugate base, succinate (/ˈsʌksɪneɪt/). As a diprotic acid, succinic acid undergoes two successive deprotonation reactions:

 

(CH2)2(CO2H)2 → (CH2)2(CO2H)(CO2)- + H+
(CH2)2(CO2H)(CO2)- → (CH2)2(CO2)22- + H+

 

 


The pKa of these processes are 4.3 and 5.6, respectively. Both anions are colorless and can be isolated as the salts, e.g., Na(CH2)2(CO2H)(CO2) and Na2(CH2)2(CO2)2. In living organisms, primarily succinate, not succinic acid, is found.

 

Commercial production of Succinic acid

Historically, succinic acid was obtained from amber by distillation and has thus been known as spirit of amber. Common industrial routes include hydrogenation of maleic acid, oxidation of 1,4-butanediol, and carbonylation of ethylene glycol. Succinate is also produced from butane via maleic anhydride.[10] Global production is estimated at 16,000 to 30,000 tons a year, with an annual growth rate of 10%.[11]

Genetically engineered Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are proposed for the commercial production via fermentation of glucose.

Chemical reactions of Succinic acid

 

Succinic acid can be dehydrogenated to fumaric acid or be converted to diesters, such as diethylsuccinate (CH2CO2CH2CH3)2. This diethyl ester is a substrate in the Stobbe condensation. Dehydration of succinic acid gives succinic anhydride.[14] Succinate can be used to derive 1,4-butanediol, maleic anhydride, succinimide, 2-pyrrolidinone and tetrahydrofuran.
Normalization of metabolism, the drug increases the rate of decomposition of many toxic substances, has antioxidant and antihypoxic effect, protects cells from harmful degradation products.
Succinic acid in humans is one of the tools to improve metabolism that leads to the following beneficial effects:
Stimulation of liver and kidneys, effective resistance to toxins;
Improve the heart's energy supply and, as a result, provide the best blood to the tissues;
increase immunity;
additional oxygen and nutrients to the brain.
Modern researchers conclude that succinic acid is a good tool for cancer prevention. Due to its effect on intracellular energy structures, mitochondria, the drug reduces the growth of the formation of cancer cells. In addition, many scientists think that this substance has repaired damaged cells and thus becomes younger. Older people take medication for 20 days, improves health, normalizes blood pressure and heart, relieves insomnia.
Succinic acid, in pure form, is a white powder with a lemon flavor and well soluble in water. It is produced in tablet form and is part of many drugs in combination with other organic acids or enzymes. Succinic acid salts are referred to as succinate.
The use of succinic acid in medicine is quite wide. Here are the indications for taking the pure substance in pill.
Combination therapy for external and internal poisoning of various causes.
Comprehensive treatment of infectious diseases.
Reduce the negative impact of drugs on the liver and kidneys with long-term drug use (antibiotics and others).
With these goals, 1 tablet 3 times a day is prescribed to receive after a meal.
The drug is used in other cases.
Increased exercise.
Alcohol intoxication of the body.
Heart failure.
Allergy.
Stimulation of the brain.
Stress causes fatigue or lethargy.
Succinic Acid in Sports
Succinic acid for athletes has been shown as a means of improving immunity, dealing with significant physical coercion. In addition, providing the necessary energy and oxygen positively affects the operation of the heart. Since succinic acid is a natural stimulant of metabolic processes, it is produced in the body and does not accumulate in organs and tissues and has no side effects from its use.
The acceptance program for athletes is as follows:
500 mg once a day after meals;
After improving the condition, reduce the dose to 100-250 mg per day, can be divided into 2-3 doses.
Often, athletes determine an individual dose by focusing on welfare. If you are using an increased amount of succinic acid (1500-3000 mg), the time to take the drug should not exceed 10 days.
Increased doses can be taken in courses: three days to drink, then two days break and so on.
Cosmetic amber acid
The regenerative and rejuvenating properties of succinic acid are used in cosmetics. It is widely used in peeling, mask and massage applications. Use pure substance in powder form. Masks with succinic acid for the face have a rejuvenating effect, cleanses the skin and never causes allergies. This medicine is also included in the composition of various creams and cosmetic milk.
In hair, succinic acid masks or shampoo. The mask softens the curls, makes them elastic and flexible. The hair should be kept in two hours. To get amber shampoo, add a few acid crystals to your normal shampoo and wash your hair. Regular use of such products improves hair growth and restores dull, damaged curls.
Is there any harm to succinic acid
This is a weak organic acid and causes irritation of the gastric mucosa, increasing the secretion of gastric juice. Therefore, it is not recommended to be taken on an empty stomach.

 

 

Succinic acid and other contraindications are:
individual intolerance;
ischemic disease;
urolithiasis;
severe renal insufficiency;
stomach ulcer;
increased acidity of gastric juice;
duodenal ulcer.
Side effects from taking the drug are not described, but if used incorrectly, you may cause irritation of the gastric mucosa and provoke gastritis. In addition, regular drinking of solutions of this substance can damage tooth enamel.
Poisoning with succinic acid and succinates requires a very large dose. Thus, for mice, the lethal dose is 1.4 grams per kg and is 2.26 grams per kg of body weight for rats.
Let's summarize the above. Succinic acid in the composition of a living organism is a natural participant in metabolism. The human body synthesizes it both independently and with food. Improves the conversion of energy from nutrients, promotes the oxidation of oxidized products and stimulates the absorption of oxygen at the cellular level. Therefore, the drug has an antioxidant and anti-toxic effect, stimulates the metabolism in general.
Succinic acid is used in the treatment of various infections and intoxication. Athletes drink as a natural stimulant and agent that improves the performance of the heart muscle in order to get rid of hard training. Taking the drug during weight loss facilitates the process and relieves nervous tension, and cosmetic experts use it as a renewed component of masks, scythe and creams.
As a means against cell aging, succinic acid has been discussed for a long time. It has been shown that taking the drug for the elderly has a positive effect on general health. However, this drug has contraindications - you can not take with patients with high acidity, severe kidney diseases, stomach ulcers.

 

Succinic acid (butanedioic acid) is a dicarboxylic acid that occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. The chemical is also known as "Spirit of Amber." When Succinic Acid was first discovered, it was extracted from amber by pulverizing and distilling it using a sand bath. It was primarily used externally for rheumatic aches and pains.

Almost infinite esters can be obtained from carboxylic acids. Esters are produced by combining an acid with an alcohol and removal of a water molecule. Carboxylic acid esters are used in a variety of direct and indirect applications.

Lower chain esters are used as flavoring base materials, plasticizers, solvent carriers and coupling agents. Higher chain compounds are used as components in metalworking fluids, surfactants, lubricants, detergents, oiling agents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, textile treatments and emollients.

Esters are also used as intermediates for the manufacture of a variety of target compounds. The almost infinite esters provide a wide range of viscosity, specific gravity, vapor pressure, boiling point, and other physical and chemical properties for the proper application selections.

 

 

Applications
succinic acid is used as a flavoring agent for food and beverages. Producing five heterocyclic compounds, Succinic Acid is used as an intermediate for dyes, perfumes, lacquers, photographic chemicals, alkyd resins, plasticizers, metal treatment chemicals, and coatings. Succinic Acid is also used in the manufacture of medicines for sedatives, antispasmers, antiplegm, antiphogistic, anrhoers, contraceptives, and cancer-curing.

 

Applications of Succinic acid

 

Precursor to polymers, resins, and solvents
Succinic acid is a precursor to some polyesters and a component of some alkyd resins.[10] 1,4-Butanediol (BDO) can be synthesized using succinic as a precursor.[16] The automotive and electronics industries heavily rely on BDO to produce connectors, insulators, wheel covers, gearshift knobs and reinforcing beams.[17] Succinic acid also serves as the bases of certain biodegradable polymers, which are of interest in tissue engineering applications.[18]

 

Acylation with succinic acid is called succination. Oversuccination occurs when more than one succinate adds to a substrate.

 

Food and dietary supplement
As a food additive and dietary supplement, succinic acid is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.[19] Succinic acid is used primarily as an acidity regulator[20] in the food and beverage industry. It is also available as a flavoring agent, contributing a somewhat sour and astringent component to umami taste.[12] As an excipient in pharmaceutical products, it is also used to control acidity[21] or as a counter ion.[12] Drugs involving succinate include metoprolol succinate, sumatriptan succinate, Doxylamine succinate or solifenacin succinate.

 

 

See also: Succinic acid fermentation
Succinate can alternatively be formed by reverse activity of SDH. Under anaerobic conditions certain bacteria such as A. succinogenes, A. succiniciproducens and M. succiniciproducens, run the TCA cycle in reverse and convert glucose to succinate through the intermediates of oxaloacetate, malate and fumarate.[24] This pathway is exploited in metabolic engineering to net generate succinate for human use.[24] Additionally, succinic acid produced during the fermentation of sugar provides a combination of saltiness, bitterness and acidity to fermented alcohols.

 

 

Succinate is the re-entry point for the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt into the TCA cycle, a closed cycle which synthesizes and recycles GABA.[27] The GABA shunt serves as an alternate route to convert alpha-ketoglutarate into succinate, bypassing the TCA cycle intermediate succinyl-CoA and instead producing the intermediate GABA. Transamination and subsequent decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate leads to the formation of GABA. GABA is then metabolized by GABA transaminase to succinic semialdehyde. Finally, succinic semialdehyde is oxidized by succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) to form succinate, re-entering the TCA cycle and closing the loop. Enzymes required for the GABA shunt are expressed in neurons, glial cells, macrophages and pancreatic cells.
SSA=Succinic semialdehyde
Oil of amber, procured by heating succinic acid

 

Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with the chemical formula (CH2)2(CO2H)2. The name derives from Latin succinum, meaning amber. In living organisms,succinic acid takes the form of an anion, succinate, which has multiple biological roles as a metabolic intermediate being converted into fumarate by theenzyme succinate dehydrogenase in complex 2 of the electron transport chain which is involved in making ATP, and as a signaling molecule reflecting thecellular metabolic state. Succinate is generated in mitochondria via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), an energy-yielding process shared by all organisms.

 

Succinate can exit the mitochondrial matrix and function in the cytoplasm as well as the extracellular space, changing gene expression patterns, modulatingepigenetic landscape or demonstrating hormone-like signaling. As such, succinate links cellular metabolism, especially ATP formation, to the regulation ofcellular function. Dysregulation of succinate synthesis, and therefore ATP synthesis, happens in some genetic mitochondrial diseases, such as Leighs disease,and Melas disease, and degradation can lead to pathological conditions, such as malignant transformation, inflammation and tissue injury. Succinate orsuccinic acid is involved in several chemical processes in the body. In supplements, it is used for symptoms related to menopause such as hot flashes andirritability. Succinate is also applied to the skin for arthritis and joint pain. The Succinic Acid test kit is suitable for the specific assay of succinicacid in wine, cheese, eggs, sauce and other food products. Succinic acid's Process based on renewable resources and high performing proprietary micro-organism, capturing CO2. Economically and ecologically attractive alternative to petrochemical raw materials.
The product is used as a building block for the production of polyurethanes, resins, polybutylene succinate (PBS) and plasticizers, as well as a precursorfor chemicals such as 1,4 butanediol (BDO). However, crude oil price volatility will affect prices for the product, thus restricting demand. In addition,strong growth in production of bio-succinic acid due to rise in popularity of green products among chemical manufacturers is expected to challenge demandover the next seven years.
Succincic Acid also known as Amber Acid, has been used in Europe as a natural analgesic and healing agent as well as natural antibiotic and general curativefor centuries. Natural Baltic Amber is high in Succinic Acid a natural constituent of plant and animal tissues and contains as much as 8% by weight. Ambergems are believed to be a very powerful anti-oxidant that may help fight toxic free radicals and disruptions of the cardiac rhythm. Succinic acid had beenshown to stimulate the neural system recovery and strengthens the immune system, and can also help compensate for energy drain in the body and brain,bosting awareness, concentration and reflexes, and reduce stress.
Succinic acid (butanedioic acid) is a dicarboxylic acid that occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. The chemical is also known as "Spirit of Amber."When it was first discovered, it was extracted from amber by pulverizing and distilling it using a sand bath. It was primarily used externally for rheumatic aches and pains. Almost infinite esters can be obtained from carboxylic acids. Esters are produced by combining an acid with an alcohol and removal of a water molecule. Carboxylic acid esters are used in a variety of direct and indirect applications. Lower chain esters are used as flavoring base materials, plasticizers, solvent carriers and coupling agents. Higher chain compounds are used as components in metalworking fluids, surfactants, lubricants,detergents, oiling agents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, textile treatments and emollients. Esters are also used as intermediates for the manufacture of avariety of target compounds. The almost infinite esters provide a wide range of viscosity, specific gravity, vapor pressure, boiling point, and otherphysical and chemical properties for the proper application selections. tCC's succinic acid is used as a flavoring agent for food and beverages. Producingfive heterocyclic compounds, it is used as an intermediate for dyes, perfumes, lacquers, photographic chemicals, alkyd resins, plasticizers, metal treatmentchemicals, and coatings. It is also used in the manufacture of medicines for sedatives, antispasmers, antiplegm, antiphogistic, anrhoers, contraceptives, andcancer-curing.

 

 

Succinic Acid
Succinic acid is one of the natural acids found in foods such as broccoli, rhubarb, sugar beets, fresh meat extracts, various cheeses, and sauerkraut.

 

 

Succinic Acid
Succinic acid accounts for up to the 90% of the nonvolatile acids produced during alcoholic fermentation (Thoukis et al., 1965). The content of this acid in wine ranges normally from 0.5 to 1.5 g/L, but the maximum concentration may reach 3 g/L (de Klerk, 2010). Succinic acid is a diprotic acid. Its pKa at 25°C are 4.21 and 5.64 (Lide, 2005). This means that at pH 3.50, most succinic acid (83.9%) is present in its undissociated form; monodissociated succinate ion accounts only for approximately 16%, while the dissociation of the second carboxylic group is practically negligible (Usseglio-Tomasset, 1985).

 

 

Succinic acid
Succinic acid is a non-hygroscopic acidulant of relatively low acid strength. Its apparent taste characteristics are very similar to the other acidulants of this type; there is some evidence that it has a rather slow taste build-up, which is an advantage when it is used as an acidulant in certain foods. It gives a much greater latitude in the formulation of powdered foods and beverages, since it has a much greater solubility in water at room temperatures than the other non-deliquescent acids.

 

Succinic acid is one of the natural acids found in foods such as broccoli, rhubarb, sugar beets, fresh meat extracts, various cheeses, and sauerkraut. All of these products have very distinct and marked flavours, which may be due in part to a flavour enhancement by the small amounts of succinic acid naturally present. This would suggest that succinic acid might have some interesting effects on various flavours that cannot be duplicated with other food acids.

 

Abstract
Succinic and malic acids and their derivatives are commonly used chemicals and are closely associated with our everyday life in the forms of food ingredients, acidulants, cosmetic products, detergents, herbicides, lubricants, biodegradable polymers, record films, clothes fibers, rubbers, and pharmaceuticals. Although succinic and malic acids are mostly produced through the petrochemical processes, their biotechnological production has been drawing much attention due to the environmental concerns and the unstable and increasing oil prices. In this article, both chemical and biotechnological processes for the production of succinic and malic acids are described. Focus is given on the metabolic engineering strategies for the development of the production strains. Also, production and applications of their major derivatives are reviewed. Finally, future directions in the development of strains and bioprocesses are discussed.

 

 

Biogenic succinic acid production: on the verge of industrializatio
Succinic acid is a success story in the establishment of industrial processes with new microbial cell factories for a new product. A variety of companies disclosed the startup of industrial production of biogenic succinic acid, based on different technologies: Bioamber is a joint venture of DNP Green Technology and Agro-industrie Recherches and Developpements (ARD). They built a pilot plant in France, with an annual capacity of 2000 t. Their process uses an E. coli strain producing succinic acid from wheat-derived glucose. Another E. coli-based process was set up by Myriant in Louisiana, USA. Currently, the annual capacity is 15 000 t using unrefined sugar as the feedstock. However, an expansion to 70 000-80 000 t in 2012 is already planned.
The production organism is S. cerevisiae, using a combination of reductive and oxidative TCA. Finally, BASF linked up with the Purac subsidiary CSM to make biosuccinic acid using Basfia succiniproducens, a ruminal bacterium (Kuhnert et al., 2010) and glycerol (Scholten et al., 2009) or glucose as a feedstock. Commercial quality and volumes of succinic acid are produced at a Purac facility in Spain.

 

 

Succinic Acid, 1,4-Butanediol and Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)
Succinic acid monomer can be obtained by microbial fermentation or synthetic chemical procedures. Chemical syntheses are well described in the literature (Chen and Patel, 2012), as well as the electrochemical process, a new procedure accepted for food and pharmaceutical applications, that is a promising technology thanks to its high yield, low cost, high purity monomers, without waste production.

 

For microbial production, several microorganisms can be used industrially, for example Actinobacillus succinogenes, Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens, and Mannheimia succiniciproducens (Chen and Patel, 2012) starting from corn starch, whey, cane molasses, glycerol, cereals, or lignocelluloses as biological raw materials. During fermentation, different byproducts such as acetate and formate could be formed, lowering the succinic acid concentration. Furthermore, unfortunately, the production cost of the downstream production is still too high, representing 60%-70% of the total production cost for succinic acid. Improvements for low cost processes as well as for purification processes are under study in order to optimize succinic acid production. Several global companies including BASF, Purac, BioAmber, Myriant, Amyris, and Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation are working on microbial production of succinic acid. 1,4-butanediol is nowadays produced from petrochemical resources by a chemical process. There is great interest in the microbial production of biobased 1,4-butanediol from sucrose as a renewable resource, or by catalytic aqueous-phase hydrogenation of biomass-based succinic acid, as reported by Chen and Patel (2012).

 

Organic Acids
Succinic acid is the main organic acid present during the greater part of the fruit development (Paull et al., 1984). However, higher content of malic acid was observed at maturity. According to Wang et al. (2006), mature fruit contains malic acid but not succinic acid. In their studies, malic acid was the main organic acid, which increased during early aril development and decreased dramatically as the fruit approached maturity. Citric, succinic, levulinic, glutaric, malonic, and lactic acids are present as relatively minor acid components (Cavaletto, 1980; Paull et al., 1984). The citric acid level was found to be low during fruit development, with a slight increase toward full maturity (Paull et al., 1984).

 

 

Environmental Fate/Exposure
Succinic acid's production and use in the manufacturing of lacquers, dyes, and esters for perfumes and in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and neutralizing agent may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. If released into water, succinic acid is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediments in the water column. The potential for bioconcentration of succinic acid in aquatic organisms is low. If released into the atmosphere, succinic acid is expected to exist in both the particulate and vapor phases in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase succinic acid will be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals with an estimated half-life of about 5.8 days.

 

 

Organic acids
Some organic acids, notably succinic and tartaric acid, have been found to have flavour enhancement effects. Succinic acid was found to impart an umami taste in cheese as noted above (Drake et al. 2007). It has also been found in an umami taste fraction extracted from dried Morel mushrooms, Morchella deliciosa (Rotzoll et al. 2005). The latter group found an aqueous solution of succinic acid to impart a sour taste (threshold 0.7 mmol/L) followed by an umami-like taste (threshold 0.9 mmol/L).

 

The Hofmann research group has termed the properties of compounds such as succinic acid as umami taste modifiers. They found succinic acid, as well as L-theanine (a glutamic acid derivative), gallic acid and theogallin to enhance the umami taste in a green tea beverage at subthreshold concentrations (Kaneko et al. 2006). Whereas in isolation the succinic acid has been denoted to have both sour and umami taste qualities, L-theanine was found to have astringent properties at 6 mmol/L but umami and sweet properties at 24 mmol/L; only gallic acid and theogallin had astringent properties in isolation. When prepared in model solutions with glutamic acid, these compounds all raised the umami intensity of MSG, depending on the level at which they were added (Kaneko et al. 2006).

 

Biofilms for succinic acid production
The industrial potential of succinic acid fermentation was recognized as early as the late 1970s (Zeikus et al., 1999). Succinic acid (HOOCCH2 CH2COOH) is a dicarboxylic acid, and can be used as a feedstock chemical for the production of high value products including 1,4-butanediol, tetrahydrofuran, adipic acid, γ-butyrolactone, and n-methylpyrrolidone (Zeikus et al., 1999) for numerous applications in agriculture, food, medicine, plastics, cosmetics, and textiles. Succinic acid can be produced in biofilm reactors. In a recent study on succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes, Urbance et al. (2003) employed customized plastic composite support (PCS) (Cotton et al., 2001) and 20 other different PCS blends. The customized plastic composite support (PCS) blends were screened for biofilm formation and succinic acid production. These customized PCS blends demonstrated 70% yields for succinic acid production as compared to 64% in suspended cell bioreactor using A. succinogenes (Urbance et al., 2003). Table 18.4 shows production of various industrial chemicals (in particular acids) in biofilm reactors.

 

 

Succinic acid, a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid, is such a building block with a relatively modest existing market, but with much promise for future growth. The US Department of Energy identified succinic acid as one of the best targets and top value-added chemicals that could be derived from biomass via fermentation because living cells produce this compound naturally. Succinic acid is an important platform molecule, widely used as an intermediate for the production of numerous everyday consumer products, pharmaceuticals, and adhesives, representing a total immediate addressable market in excess of $7.2 billion. In this article, an analysis of the current succinic acid market, biological-based production processes, the enzymatic regulation, and the recovery system of succinic acid are discussed. This biologically produced succinic acid is a beacon for the chemical industries as being "green" in nature.
ApplicationsEnzymatic regulationMarketRecoverySuccinic acid

 

Succinic acid was first obtained as a distillation product of amber (Latin: succinum), for which it is named. The common method of synthesis of succinic acid is the catalytic hydrogenation of maleic acid or its anhydride, although other methods are being used and investigated. Succinic acid has uses in certain drug compounds, in agricultural and food production, and in manufacturing.

 

 

Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid that occurs in
nature in such organisms as fungi and lichens.1
In
eukaryotes, succiniate, the anion of succinic acid, is
an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, being formed
from succinyl CoA and being converted to fumarate.
Bacteria and plants can produce succinate from
acetate or acetyl CoA, in the glyoxylate cycle.3

 

 

Succinic acid has been used in large scale
applications including the manufacture of lacquers,
dyes, and esters for perfumes.1
In polymer research,
succinic acid has been utilized to prepare
biocompatible hybrid dendritic-linear polyester-ethers.4

 

 

A study of the co-crystallization of cis-itraconazole with
various 1,4-dicarboxylic acids, including succinic acid,
has been reported.5
Succinic acid has been used as a matrix in infrared
(IR) MALDI analytical methods.6,7,8 An analytical study
of various low molecular weight organic acids,
including succinic acid, using capillary zone
electrophoresis-electrospray ionization mass
spectrometry has been published.

 

Succinic acid, systematically identified as butanedioic acid (pKa1 4.21, pKa2 5.72), is a value-added chemical building block, with an estimated 15,000 t/year world-wide demand predicted to expand to commodity chemical status with 270,000 t/year [7], [8] representing a potential >2 billion USD annual market. There are several elegant examples of bio-based production of succinate in Anaerobiospirillium succiniciproducens, Actinobacillus succinogenes, Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Corynebacterium glutanicum, Prevotella ruminocola, a recently isolated bacterium from bovine rumen, Mannheimia succiniciproducens, and a metabolically engineered succinic acid over-producing E. coli [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12]. All of the hosts described are prokayotic that grow at neutral pH, and consequently secrete the salt, succinate, requiring a cost-intensive acidification and precipitation to reach the desired succinic acid. This concern is not specific to succinic acid production, but rather universal when considering organic acid producing microbial cell factories [13]. S. cerevisiae represents a well-established, generally regarded as safe, robust, scalable (1L to 100,000L) industrial production host capable of growth on diverse carbon sources, chemically defined medium, both aerobic and anaerobic, and a wide pH operating range (3.0-6.0). We therefore addressed the question whether it is possible to metabolically engineer S. cerevisiae such that the carbon fluxes are redirected towards succinic acid, and hereby establish proof-of-concept of using this yeast as a general cell factory platform for chemical production.

 

9. Zeikus JG, Jain MK, Elankovan P (1999) Biotechnology of succinic acid production and markets for dervied industrial products. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 51: 545-552. [Google Scholar]
10. Song H, Lee SY (2006) Production of succinic acid by bacterial fermentation. Enzy Microb Techn 39(3): 352-361. [Google Scholar]
11. Jantama K, Haupt MJ, Svoronos SA, Zhang X, Moore JC, et al. (2008) Combining metabolic engineering and metabolic evolution to develop nonrecombinant strains of Escherichia coli C that produce succinate and malate. Biotechnol Bioeng 99(5): 1140-1153. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
12. Lee PC, Lee SY, Hong SH, Chang HN (2002) Isolation and characterization of a new succinic acid-producing bacterium, Mannheimia succiniciproducens MBEL55E, from bovine rumen. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 58(5): 663-668.

 

Succinic Acid (Butanedioic Acid) is a dicarboxylic acid of four carbon atoms. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It plays a significant role in intermediary metabolism (Krebs cycle) in the body. Krebs cycle (also called citric acid cycle; tricarboxylic acid cycle) is a sequence process of enzymatic reaction which a two-carbon acetyl unit is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water to provide energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds. Succinic acid is a colourless crystalline solid with a melting point of 185 -187 C; soluble in water; slightly dissolved in ethanol, ether, acetone and glycerine; not dissolved in benzene, carbon sulfide, carbon tetrachloride and oil ether. The common method of synthesis of succinic acid is the catalytic hydrogenation of maleic acid or its anhydride. Carboxylic acid can yield acyl halides, anhydrides, esters, amides, and nitriles for the application of drug, agriculture, and food products, and other industrial uses.

Dicarboxylic acid is a compound containing two carboxylic acid, -COOH, groups. Straight chain examples are shown in table. The general formula is HOOC(CH2)nCOOH, where oxalic acid's n is 0, n=1 for malonic acid, n=2 for succinic acid, n=3 for glutaric acid, and etc. In substitutive nomenclature, their names are formed by adding -dioic' as a suffix to the name of the parent compound.

 


Chemical Name: Succinic acid

 

Synonyms: Butanedioic acid

CAS No.: 110-15-6

Molecular Formula: C4H6O4

Molecular Weight: 118.08800

Application:

Bio-based succinic acid used for medicine, spices, food preservatives, condiments, food additives, surface active agents, and widely used in the production of degradable plastics PBS, PBAT, PBSA, clothing biological fibers, polyurethane, polyether and other polyester products.

Acidic seasoning for Sake, Synthetic liquor, miso, soy sauce, soft drink, confectionery and so on.

Storage of succinic acid: Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilate area away from incompatible materials

Packing of succinic acid: 25 kgs net paper bag, 500 kgs net flexible container bag

 

Bio-based Succinic acid is a non-hygroscopic acidulant of relatively low acid strength. Succinic acids apparent taste characteristics are very similar to the other acidulants of this type. So there is some evidence that succinic acid has a rather slow taste build-up. Succinic acid gives a much greater latitude in the formulation of powdered foods and beverages. Since Succinic acid has a much greater solubility in water at room temperatures than the other non-deliquescent acids.
Succinic acid is one of the natural acids found in foods such as broccoli, rhubarb, sugar beets, fresh meat extracts, various cheeses, and sauerkraut. All of these products have very distinct and marked flavours. And Succinic acid may be due in part to a flavour enhancement by the small amounts of naturally present. Succinic acid would suggest that might have some interesting effects on various flavours. So Succinic acid cannot be duplicated with other food acids.

 

 



SÜKSİNİK ASİT

 

 


Süksinik asit, (CH2)2(CO2H)2 kimyasal formüllü bir dikarboksilik asit.[5] Adı, kehribar anlamına gelen Latince succinum' dan gelir. Canlı organizmalarda, süksinik asit, ATP yapımında yer alan elektron taşıma zincirinin 2. kompleksindeki süksinat dehidrojenaz enzimi tarafından fumarata dönüştürülen metabolik bir ara ürün olarak çoklu biyolojik rollere sahip olan bir anyon olan süksinat biçimini alır ve hücresel metabolik durumu yansıtan bir sinyal molekülü görevi görür. Gıda katkı maddesi E363 olarak pazarlanmaktadır. Süksinat, mitokondride, trikarboksilik asit döngüsü (TCA) ile üretilir. Süksinat, mitokondriyal matristen çıkabilir ve hücre dışı alanda olduğu gibi sitoplazmada da işlev görebilir, gen ekspresyonunu değiştirebilir, epigenetik durumu değiştirebilir veya hormon benzeri bir sinyal üretebilir. Bu haliyle, süksinat, hücresel metabolizmayı, özellikle ATP oluşumunu hücresel fonksiyonun düzenlenmesini birbirine bağlamaktadır. Süksinat sentezinin ve dolayısıyla ATP sentezinin düzensizliği, Leigh sendromu ve Melas sendromu gibi bazı genetik mitokondriyal hastalıklarda meydana gelir ve bozunma, malign transformasyon, iltihaplanma ve doku hasarı gibi patolojik durumlara yol açabilir.
Diğer adlar
Süksinik asit

 

 

Süksinik asit ile cilt koruması
Cildimiz çevresel etkenler ile sürekli yıpranma ve yaşlanma eğilimi göstermektedir. Özellikle ülkemizde güneşin etkisi ile hücresel düzeyde hasarlar meydana gelmekte, sadece güneş koruyucu kullanmak ise yetersiz kalmaktadır. Güneş koruyucularına ek olarak hücresel canlanmayı sağlayacak, süksinik asit uygulaması hakkında Doktor Ezgi Karavelioğlu önemli bilgiler verdi.

 

Güneş koruyucusuna ek olarak hücresel düzeyde canlanmanın ise en yeni yolu süksinik asit ile mezoterapi uygulaması. Bugüne kadar bize en büyük yardımcı cilt içi hyaluronikasit uygulamaları iken artık süksinikasit ile birlikte tedaviler çok daha güçlü bir hale gelmektedir. hyaluronikasit cilde yoğun nem sağlarken Süksinik asit ciltte 3 ana yaşlanma basamağına etki eder. Cilt metabolizmasını düzenler, antioksidan sistemini destekleyerek hücrelerin güçlenmesine yardımcı olur. Süksinik asit ve hyaluronikasit ile yapılan tedavinin ismi ise redermalizasyondur. Cildinde matlık, kuruluk, ince kırışıklık olan, lekeleri bulunan kişilere uygulama yapılabilir. Uygulama öncesi mutlaka doktor muayenesi önemlidir.

 

Süksinik asit Fiziksel özellikleri
Süksinik asit beyaz renkli bir, yüksek derecede asidik bir tat ile kokusuz katıdır. Bir in sulu çözelti , süksinik asit kolaylıkla iyonize konjügat bazını, süksinat oluşturmak üzere ( / s ʌ k s ɪ N eɪ t / ). Bir şekilde diprotik asit , süksinik asit, iki ardışık proton giderme reaksiyonları maruz:

 

 

(CH 2 ) 2 (C = 2 H) 2 → (CH 2 ) 2 (C = 2 H) (C = 2 ) - + H +
(CH 2 ) 2 (C = 2 H) (C = 2 ) - → (CH 2 ) 2 (C = 2 ) 2 2- + H +
PKa bir bu işlemlerin sırası ile 4.3 ve 5.6, bulunmaktadır. Her iki anyonlar renksizdir ve örneğin tuzları, Na (CH olarak izole edilebilir 2 ) 2 (C = 2 H) (C = 2 ) ve Na 2 (CH 2 ) 2 (C = 2 ) 2 2- . Canlı organizmalar, esas olarak süksinat değil, süksinik asit olarak bulunur.

 

en basit mono- ve dikarboksilik asitlerin gibi, zararlı değildir ancak cilt ve gözlere bir tahriş edici olabilir.

 

Süksinik asit Kimyasal reaksiyonları
Süksinik asit oksidize edilebilir fumarik asit ya da dietilsüksinat (CH gibi diesterler, dönüştürülebilir 2 CO 2 , CH 2 , CH 3 ) 2 . Bu, dietil ester, bir alt-tabaka olup Stobbe yoğunlaşması . Süksinik asit dehidrasyonu verir süksinik anhidrit . Süksinat 1,4-bütandiol, maleik anhidrit, sukkinimit, 2-pirrolidinon ve türetmek için kullanılabilir tetrahidrofuran .

 

 

Reklam prodüksiyonu
Tarihsel olarak, süksinik asit elde edildi amber damıtılarak ve böylece kehribar ruhu olarak bilinmektedir. Günümüzde, süksinik asit, sentetik olarak insan kullanımı için oluşturulmuş ya da mayalanma yoluyla biyokütleden dönüştürülür. Sentezi Genel endüstriyel yolları kısmi içerir hidrojenasyon arasında maleik asit , oksidasyonunu 1,4-bütandiol ve karbonilasyon arasında etilen glikol . Süksinat da gelen petrokimyasal üretilir bütan maleik anhidrit yolu ile. Buna ek olarak, örneğin, mikroorganizmaların, genetik mühendisliği , Escherichia coli veya Saccharomyces cerevisiae , son fermantasyonundan yüksek verimli, ticari üretim için izin verdi glükoz . Küresel üretim% 10 yıllık büyüme oranı ile, yılda 16.000 30.000 ton olarak tahmin ediliyor.

 

Süksinik asit olan ön-madde bazı poliesterlerin ve bazı bir bileşeni alkid reçineleri . 1,4-Bütandiol (BDO), bir ön-madde olarak süksinik kullanılarak sentezlenebilir. Otomotiv ve elektronik endüstrisi ağır konektörler, izolatörleri, jant kapakları, vites kolları ve takviye kirişleri üretmek için BDO güvenmektedir. Süksinik asit de doku mühendisliği uygulamalarında ADPRT biyobozunur polimerlerin bazlar olarak hizmet vermektedir.

Asilasyon süksinik asit ile adlandırılır sükinasyon . Oversuccination birden fazla süksinat, bir alt-tabaka için ekler oluşur.

 


Süksinik asit, (CH2)2(CO2H)2 kimyasal formüllü bir dikarboksilik asit.[5] Adı, kehribar anlamına gelen Latince succinum' dan gelir. Canlı organizmalarda, süksinik asit, ATP yapımında yer alan elektron taşıma zincirinin 2. kompleksindeki süksinat dehidrojenaz enzimi tarafından fumarata dönüştürülen metabolik bir ara ürün olarak çoklu biyolojik rollere sahip olan bir anyon olan süksinat biçimini alır ve hücresel metabolik durumu yansıtan bir sinyal molekülü görevi görür. Gıda katkı maddesi E363 olarak pazarlanmaktadır. Süksinat, mitokondride, trikarboksilik asit döngüsü (TCA) ile üretilir. Süksinat, mitokondriyal matristen çıkabilir ve hücre dışı alanda olduğu gibi sitoplazmada da işlev görebilir, gen ekspresyonunu değiştirebilir, epigenetik durumu değiştirebilir veya hormon benzeri bir sinyal üretebilir. Bu haliyle, süksinat, hücresel metabolizmayı, özellikle ATP oluşumunu hücresel fonksiyonun düzenlenmesini birbirine bağlamaktadır. Süksinat sentezinin ve dolayısıyla ATP sentezinin düzensizliği, Leigh sendromu ve Melas sendromu gibi bazı genetik mitokondriyal hastalıklarda meydana gelir ve bozunma, malign transformasyon, iltihaplanma ve doku hasarı gibi patolojik durumlara yol açabilir.
Diğer adlar
Süksinik asit

 

 

Gıda ve besin takviyesi
Bir şekilde , gıda katkı maddesi ve besin takviyesi , süksinik asit olduğu genel olarak güvenli kabul tarafından ABD Gıda ve İlaç İdaresi . Süksinik asit, bir unsuru olarak kullanılması ile asitlik düzenleyici gıda ve içecek endüstrisinde kullanılır. Bu umami tat için biraz ekşi ve sıkılaştırıcı bileşeni katkı de lezzet verici bir ajan olarak kullanılabilir. Bir olarak yardımcı madde , farmasötik ürünler, aynı zamanda asit veya bir karşı iyon olarak kontrol etmek için kullanılır. Süksinat içeren ilaçlar dahil metoprolol süksinat , sumatriptan süksinat , Doksilamin süksinat veya Solifenasın süksinat.
Süksinat için yeniden giriş noktasıdır gama-aminobutirik asit TCA döngüsü, sentezler ve GABA geri dönüştürür kapalı bir döngü halinde (GABA) şant. GABA şant dönüştürmek için alternatif bir yol olarak hizmet veren alfa-ketoglutarat TCA döngüsü ara süksinil-CoA atlayarak yerine ara GABA üreten süksinat içine. Alfa-ketoglutarat Transaminasyonu ve daha sonra dekarboksilasyon GABA oluşmasına yol açar. GABA sonra metabolize edilir GABA transaminaz için süksiniksemialdehit . Son olarak, süksiniksemialdehit ile oksitlenir süksiniksemialdehit dehidrojenaz TCA döngüsü yeniden giren ve döngü kapatma süksinat oluşturmak üzere (SSD enzim). GABA şant için gerekli enzimler nöronlar, gliyal hücreler, makrofajlar ve pankreas hücrelerinde ifade edilmiştir.

 

 

Süksinik asit (Succinic Acid) Nedir? Kehribar Nedir? 
Süksinik asit Kullanım alanları ve faydaları nelerdir? 
Süksinik asit ne işe yarar? 
Süksinik asit Kehribar...
Pek çok insan süksinik asidin vücudumuz üzerindeki etkisinin farkında değil. Çoğunlukla metabolizmamızla ilgili olan birkaç kimyasal işlemle ilgilidir. Binlerce yıldır kullanılan oldukça eski bir tedavi adeta bir ilaç, süksinik asit. Baltık Ülkelerinde bulunan Baltık Kehribarında yüksek miktarlarda süksinik asit bulunur.

 

Süksinik asit de ağrıyla ilgili sorunlara karşı savaşmak için doğal bir çözümdür.

Süksinik asit ayrıca hayvansal dokularda ve ayrıca dünyanın her yerindeki bitkilerde bulunur. İlaç veya ev kullanımı için, kehribardan çıkartılarak elde edilir veya sentetik olarak üretilir. "Süksinik" kelimesi, Latince kökenli olan "succinum" yani "kehribar" demektir.

 

Süksinik asit Sinir sistemini uyarır
Süksinik asit, stres ve kaygıyı hafifleten özel özelliklere sahiptir. Stresin çeşitli zihinsel ve fiziksel sağlık komplikasyonlarının temel nedeni olduğu söyleniyor. Asit beyninizi uyararak stresin kök nedenlerini ortadan kaldırmayı ve eskisi gibi kullanmaya başlamasını "başlatmayı" amaçlıyor.

 

 

Süksinik asit Hücresel Solunumu geliştirir
Son araştırmalar süksinik asidin, hücrenin solunumunu iyileştirme yeteneğinin yanı sıra, vücudun en iyi şekilde çalışmasını sağlayan glikoz metabolizmasını da ortaya çıkardı. Hücreler oksijene girip onu enerji elde etmek için kullanabiliyorsa, vücudumuz her zaman formda ve sağlıklı kalmak için gerekli enerjiye sahiptir.

 

 

Süksinik asit Soğuk algınlığı önler
Bu şifa özellikleri tam olarak bilinmeden önce, bir çok batıl inanç kehribar kullanımını sarmıştı. İnsanlar kehribarın (süksinik asit) nezle veya gribe neden olan kötü ruhları uzaklaştıracağına inanıyordu. Süksinik asit, bağışıklık sistemini güçlendirmeye yardımcı olduğu için, bu batıl inanç doğru olduğu ortaya çıktı, bu da nezle veya gripten korunma riskinizi azaltır.

 

 

Süksinik Asit Kullanım alanları ve faydaları nelerdir?
Süksinik asit Artrit Tedavisinde Kullanılır
İsmi başka bir şeyi öne sürse de, süksinik asit aslında antienflamatuardır ve birçok antioksidan içerir. Ağrıyı hafifleten çeşitli özelliklerle, birçok hasta etkili ağrı kesici için bileklerinde veya etkilenen bölgede kehribar rengi giyer.

 

 

Süksinik Asit Kalp Üzerindeki Etkileri
Süksinik asit, kardiyomiyositleri düzenler. Bunun anlamı, kalbin düzgün şekilde kan pompalamasına yardımcı olur. Bu, kalp-damar rahatsızlığı çeken insanlar için iyidir. Süksinik asidin kalp krizlerini önlemeye yardımcı olduğu bile bilinmektedir.

 

 

Süksinik Asit Stresi azaltır ve sizi sakinleştirir
Süksinik asit zihinlerimiz üzerinde önemli bir etkiye sahiptir. Mevcut dünya sorunları ve hatta günlük hatalar size genel olarak sağlığınız için kötü olan çok fazla strese neden olabilir. Süksinik asit stresi ve kimyasalların birikmesini engellemeye yardımcı olduğundan, kehribar kolye, kehribar bileklik vb. takarken keyifli bir his yaşarsınız.

 

 

Bir Temizleyici Olarak Süksinik Asit
Süksinik asidin, bilim tarafından tanınan ve tıbbi kurumlar tarafından sömürülen insan vücudu için sayısız faydası vardır.

 

 

Asidin doğal temizleme özellikleri,
Kronik ağrıyı giderici olması
Negatif enerji birikimini temizlemek vb. şeyler
Birçok mistik, akıllarını rahatlatmak ve meditasyon sırasında konsantrasyonlarını arttırmak için negatif enerjiden kurtulmak için Kehribar kullanır. Kehribarda bulunan süksinik asit, kullanıcılara arzularını bastırmaya ve evrenle bir olmaları için sıcak bir his verir.

 

 

Bununla birlikte, kehribar kolye, bileklik, tesbih vb. süksinik asidin vücudunuza uzun süre girmesine izin verir, bu nedenle kehribardan yapılmış boncuklarla birçok ruhsal guru bulunur.
Sonuç olarak Analjezik özellikler Kehribarı yani süksinik asidi birçok hastalık için harika bir ilaç yapar. Sinirlenebilirliği azaltan ve menopozu önleyen süksinik asit, birçok insana yüzyıllarca şifa ve iyileşme sağlamada anahtar rol oynamıştır.

 

Süksinik asit faydalarının bir miktarı bilim tarafından açıklanmış olsa da, insanoğlu Kehribar hakkında hala çok az şey bilindiğine inanıyor. Ne de olsa, doğanın henüz açıklanmayan birçok tıbbi harikası var.

Umarım, bir gün insan, bu ilacı analizlerini ve daha iyi bir şekilde nasıl kullanılabileceğine dair anlayışlarını daha ileriye çıkarabilir. O zamana kadar süksinik asidin çeşitli kullanımlarından ve sağlığınızı geliştirmenize yardımcı olabileceği sayısız yoldan yararlanmaya devam edebilirsiniz.

 

Kehribar Kolye Ve Süksinik Asit
Kehribar kolyeyi kehribar kolye yapan en büyük unsur süksinik asittir. Kehribar kolyenin elektromanyetik düzeninin haricindeki şifa kaynağı süksinik asittir. Bu yazımızda süksinik asitin ne olduğunu, nerelerde kullanıldığını ve faydalarını yazacağız.
Kehribar kolyeler arasında süksinik asit oranı en fazla olan Baltık kehribarıdır. Eğer kehribar kolyeniz Baltık kehribarından oluşmuş ise ancak bu faydaları ve etkileri gösterebilmektedir. Baltık kehribarında yüzde 8 oranında süksinik asit bulunmaktadır. Hadi Süksinik Asiti tanıyalım.

 

 

Süksinik asit fosillemiş hayvanlarda bulunur ama daha çok bitkilerde bulunur.
Vücudumuz dışarıdan herhangi bir miktar almaması durumunda günde 200 gr üretir. Görüldüğü üzere kehribar kolye içerisinde bulunan madde aynı zamanda vücudumuzda üretiliyor.
Süksinik asit deniz ürünlerinde ,yoğurtta,kefirde,üzümde,pancar suyunda bulunmaktadır.
Süksinik asit aynı zamanda kehribar kolyede bulunmaktadır ne kadar ilginç değil mi.
Süksinik asit bağışıklık sistemine fayda sağlamaktadır.
Süksinik asit genelde alkol zehirlenmesi,yada bağırsak zehirlenmesinde kullanılır ve tabletler halinde alınır.
Kehribar kolye içerisinde süksinik asit bulunması nedeniyle kullanıldığında doku,kan hücreleri çeperlerinde sağlamlaşma meydana getirir.
Kehribar kolye vücuttaki kan miktarını artırır.
Aynı zamanda bir antioksidandır ve vücudun gençleşmesinde etkilidir.
Toksik özellik gösterir ve vücudun tahliyesini sağlar,kanın temizlenmesinde rol oynar.
Kronik yorgunluğun atılmasını sağlar bunu kanın temizlenmesi ile sağlar.
Süksinik asitin kanser ve diyabet hastalıklarına iyi geldiği kanıtlanmış bir gerçektir.

 

Aslında kehribarın ve Süksinik asitin burada yüzlerce faydalarını sayabiliriz. Ancak buna bir yazı malesef yetmemektedir. Kehribar kolyenin faydalarını başka yazılarımızda da anlatacağız. Kehribar taşını kullanmak için bir çok neden vardır. Burada sadece Süksinik asite bağlı faydalarından bahsettik. Ancak kehribar diş kolyesinin içerisinde şifalı başka yağlarda bulunmaktadır. Ayrıca kehribar kolyenin kendi enerji seviyesi ve elektromanyetik alanı ile de ilgili bir çok faydaları bulunmaktadır. İnsanımız doğal taş takı takmaya alışacaktır umarım o zararlı plastik ve endüstüriyel ürünlerden uzaklaşır ve kendilerine zarar vermekten vazgeçerler ve doğal taş takının özelliklede kehribar kolyenin şifalı yönleriyle karşılaşırlar.

Aslında kehribar taşınıyi insanımız sadece kehribar diş kolyesi olarak bilmektedir. Ancak en çok kullanması gerekenler ise hamilelerdir. bununla ilgili yazıda yazacağız ileride. Kehribar taşı hamilelik döneminde kullanıldığında bebeklerin bağışıklık sistemlerinin daha iyi oluşmasına katkı sağlamaktadır. Hatta bazı doktorlar bebeklerin bağışıklığı için annelere tablet olarak Süksinik asit vermektedirler.

 

Süksinik asidin Terapötik Kullanımları
Süksinik asit (100 mM), farelerde bileşik 48/80 / güçlü bir mast hücre degranülatörü / tarafından indüklenen sistemik anafilaksiyi önemli ölçüde inhibe etti ve doza bağlı olarak anti-dinitrofenil IgE ile aktive edilen lokal anafilaksiyi inhibe etti. Ayrıca 10 ve 100 mM, bileşik 48/80 veya anti-dinitrofenil IgE ile aktive edilen sıçan peritoneal mast hücrelerinden histamin salımını önemli ölçüde inhibe etti. Ek olarak süksinik asit (0.1 ve 1 mM), sıçan peritoneal mast hücrelerinden anti-dinitrofenil IgE ile indüklenen tümör nekroz faktörü-alfa salgılanması üzerinde önemli bir inhibitör etkiye sahipti. Süksinik asit (100 mM) eklendiğinde, sıçan peritoneal mast hücrelerindeki siklik AMP seviyesi, bazal hücrelerinkine kıyasla geçici ve önemli ölçüde yaklaşık 4 kat arttı. Bu sonuçlar, mast hücresine bağlı anafilaksiyi yönetmede olası bir süksinik asit kullanımını önermektedir.

 

 

Süksinik asidin Etki Mekanizması
Süksinat, Krebs veya sitrik asit döngüsünün temel bir bileşenidir ve fumarik asit ve FADH2 üretiminde bir elektron vericisine hizmet eder. Ayrıca göreceli asidik veya kostik yapısı nedeniyle iyi bir "doğal" antibiyotik olduğu da gösterilmiştir (yüksek konsantrasyonlar yanıklara bile neden olabilir). Süksinat takviyelerinin, alkol metabolizmasının toksik bir yan ürünü olan asetaldehitin aerobik metabolizma yoluyla CO2 ve H2O'ya indirgenmesini etkinleştirerek akşamdan kalma etkilerini azaltmaya yardımcı olduğu gösterilmiştir. Süksinik asidin sinir sistemi iyileşmesini uyardığı ve bağışıklık sistemini güçlendirdiği gösterilmiştir. Ayrıca farkındalığı, konsantrasyonu ve refleksleri artırdığı iddiaları da var.

 

 


Süksinik asidin Terapötik Kullanımları
Süksinik asit (100 mM), farelerde bileşik 48/80 / güçlü bir mast hücre degranülatörü / tarafından indüklenen sistemik anafilaksiyi önemli ölçüde inhibe etti ve doza bağlı olarak anti-dinitrofenil IgE ile aktive edilen lokal anafilaksiyi inhibe etti. Ayrıca 10 ve 100 mM, bileşik 48/80 veya anti-dinitrofenil IgE ile aktive edilen sıçan peritoneal mast hücrelerinden histamin salımını önemli ölçüde inhibe etti. Ek olarak süksinik asit (0.1 ve 1 mM), sıçan peritoneal mast hücrelerinden anti-dinitrofenil IgE ile indüklenen tümör nekroz faktörü-alfa salgılanması üzerinde önemli bir inhibitör etkiye sahipti. Süksinik asit (100 mM) eklendiğinde, sıçan peritoneal mast hücrelerindeki siklik AMP seviyesi, bazal hücrelerinkine kıyasla geçici ve önemli ölçüde yaklaşık 4 kat arttı. Bu sonuçlar, mast hücresine bağlı anafilaksiyi yönetmede olası bir süksinik asit kullanımını önermektedir.

 

Süksinik asidin Etki Mekanizması

 

Biyo-bazlı Süksinik asit, nispeten düşük asit kuvvetine sahip, higroskopik olmayan bir asitleştiricidir. Süksinik asitlerin belirgin tat özellikleri, bu tipteki diğer asitlendiricilere çok benzer. Bu nedenle süksinik asidin oldukça yavaş bir tat oluşumuna sahip olduğuna dair bazı kanıtlar vardır. Süksinik asit, toz yiyecek ve içeceklerin formülasyonunda çok daha büyük bir serbestlik sağlar. Süksinik asit, diğer sıvı olmayan asitlere göre oda sıcaklıklarında suda çok daha fazla çözünürlüğe sahip olduğundan.
Süksinik asit, brokoli, ravent, şeker pancarı, taze et özleri, çeşitli peynirler ve lahana turşusu gibi yiyeceklerde bulunan doğal asitlerden biridir. Tüm bu ürünlerin çok farklı ve belirgin aromaları vardır. Ve Süksinik asit, kısmen doğal olarak bulunan küçük miktarlarda lezzet artışına bağlı olabilir. Süksinik asit, bunun çeşitli tatlar üzerinde bazı ilginç etkileri olabileceğini düşündürür. Bu nedenle Süksinik asit, diğer gıda asitleriyle kopyalanamaz.

 

 


Redermalizasyon, yenilenme, onarım ve yapılanmaya katkı sağlayan cilt tedavisidir. Hyalüronik asit cilde ışıltı nem verir. Süksinik asit ise hyalüronik asitle birleştiğinde pigment bozuklarını giderir. Dolaşım ve oksijilenmeye katkı sağlar. Cildi sıkılaştırır ve elastikiyeti artırır. Yaşlanma sürecine dur demede oldukça etkilidir.

 

 

süksinik asit İng. succinic acid
Formülü HOOOC.CH2CH2.COOH, e.n. 185 °C olan, şekerlerin fermantasyonu sırasında oluşan, alg, amber ve diğer reçinelerin yapısında bulunan, ilaç ve parfüm yapımında kullanılan, suda çözünen, renksiz kristaller. Amber asidi. Bütandioik asit, Etilendikarbonik asit

 

 


Süksinik Asit
Süksinik asit Kehribarda % 3-8 nispetinde bulunan organik bir bileşik. Diğer reçinelerde, fosilleşmiş ağaçlarda ve ekseri bitkilerde de bulunur. Düşük konsantrasyonlarda biçok hayvanın dokularında yer alıp, ara metabolizma görevini ifa eder. Süksinik asit (CO2HCH2-CH2CO2H) doymuş, dibazik bir asit olup, renksiz kristaller verir. Erime noktası 186°C, kaynama noktası 235°C'dir. Buharları kolaylıkla su kaybedip, süksinik anhidride dönüşür. Süksinik asit ve süksinik asidin alkali veya t

 

Süksinik asit Kehribarda % 3-8 nispetinde bulunan organik bir bileşik. Diğer reçinelerde, fosilleşmiş ağaçlarda ve ekseri bitkilerde de bulunur. Düşük konsantrasyonlarda biçok hayvanın dokularında yer alıp, ara metabolizma görevini ifa eder.

Süksinik asit (CO2HCH2-CH2CO2H) doymuş, dibazik bir asit olup, renksiz kristaller verir. Erime noktası 186°C, kaynama noktası 235°C'dir. Buharları kolaylıkla su kaybedip, süksinik anhidride dönüşür.

Süksinik asit ve süksinik asidin alkali veya toprak alkali tuzları suda çözünür. Baryum süksinat sulu çözeltiden alkolle çöktürülür. Demir süksinat suda çözünmez ve bazan demiri diğer metallerden analitik olarak ayırmada kullanılır. Sodyum süksinat fosfor tri sülfürle ısıtıldığında tiyofen teşekkül eder. Süksinik asit, amonyum tartarat veya kalsiyum maltın bakteriyel fermantasyonundan üretilir. Sentetik olarak da etilen, C2H4, etilen diklorür, C2H4Cl2 ve etilen disiyanür, C2H4(CN)2 den elde edilebilir. Etilen disiyanür (Süksinonitril) hidrolizle direkt süksinik asit verir.

 

Binlerce türü bulunan kehribar taşının türleri arasında en önemli olan Baltık kehribarı olarak anılanıdır. Baltık denizi dünya üzerinde en çok kehribar yatağına ev sahipliği yapan bölgedir. 44 milyon yıl önce oluşan bu kehribar taşının o bölgede geçmiş dönemlerde bolca bulunan çam ağaçlarından oluşmaktadır. Kehribar taşının kalitesini belirleyen içinde bulunan süksinik asittir.

Baltık kehribarının içeriğinde %8 oranında süksinik asit bulunduğundan dünya çapındaki en kaliteli kehribar taşı olma özelliğini elinde bulundurmaktadır. İçeriğinde bulundurduğu bu süksinik asit sayesinde çokça tercih edilmektedir ve rakibi olan diğer kehribar türlerine oranla yerini tam oturtmaktadır.

Kehribar taşı içeriğindeki bolca mineral ve vitamin sayesinde günümüzde ve geçmişte alternatif tıp alanında özel bir yeri oluşturmaktadır. Kehribar taşı güzel dış görünümü sayesinde de takı ve aksesuar alanında da çokta tercih edilmekte olan bir üründür. Normal takı aksesuarlarına göre ekstrası olarak insan sağlığı üzerindeki etkileriyle de göz kamaştırmakta olan bu ürün günümüzde çokça tercih edilmektedir. Kehribar taşı türleri arasında özel bir yeri olan Baltık kehribar içeriğinde yüksek oranda bulundurduğu süksinik asitin faydaları saymakla bitmez .

 

Soyu tükenmiş bir çam cinsinde bulunan ve Süksinik asit içeren fosil haline gelmiş reçinedir, taşlaşmış organik bir maddedir.

Genellikle küpe gibi ufacık parçacıklar halinde bulunur. Milyonlarca yıl önce oluşmuş tek parça halinde olanlar mücevherat yapımında kullanılmaktadır.

 


Amber, saydam veya yarısaydam, bünyesinde bulunan kırıntılar ve kabarcıklar nedeniyle oldukça hareketli bir görünüme sahiptir.

 

Oldukça yumuşak ve hafiftir.

Kimyasal formülü C12H20O + Süksinik Asit + Su'dan oluşur.

Kehribarda % 3-8 nispetinde bulunan SÜKSİNİK ASİT organik bir bileşiktir. Kehribar reçinesinin özü, aktif maddesidir. Kimyasal adı bütandioik asittir. Diğer reçinelerde, fosilleşmiş ağaçlarda ve ekseri bitkilerde de bulunur. Gıda ve içeceklerde tatlandırıcı olarak kullanılır. Gıda katkı maddeleri kodu e363 tür. Ayrıca bakterilere karşı dayanıklılık özelliği vardır. Sigaranın içinde bulunan yüzlerce kimyasaldan da biridir. Canlıların enerji üretmesinde faydalandıkları krebs döngüsünde de yer alır. Düşük yoğunlukta birçok hayvanın dokularında yer alıp, ara metabolizma görevini ifa eder.

 

Kehribar taşı içeriğinde hidrojen, oksijen, süksinik asit ve karbon gibi mineraller içerir. 
Özellikle şifalı taş olarak oldukça meşhur bir hale gelmiş olan kehribar taşı; hidrojen, oksijen, süksinik asit ve karbon gibi mineraller içermektedir.

 

 

"Süksinik Asit " insan vücuduna yararlı, toksik olmayan, kararlı ve zararsızdır. Metabolizma süreci boyunca bir sitrik asit döngüsünde (Succinic Aciddehidrat enzimi) ve Süksinik Asit -glisin döngüsünde üretilir ve sonuçta enerji haline gelir. Süksinik Asit , Maleik Anhidridin hidrojenasyonu ile endüstriyel olarak üretilir. Succinic Acid, meyve-tomurcuk başlatma, 2,2-Dimetilhidazid, Daminozidi etkileyebilen cimri bir ajandır. Süksinik Asit , bütanın terminal metil gruplarının her birinin ilgili karboksi grubuna formal oksidasyonuyla sonuçlanan bir ?, ?-dikarboksilik asittir. Sitrik asit devresinde bir ara metabolittir.
Succinic Acid(bütandioik asit) bir dikarboksilik asittir.; succinic acid;Birkaç anaerobik ve fakültatif mikro organizmanın metabolik yolunda ortak bir ara formdur. Succinic Acid, sıcak basması ve irritabilite gibi menopozla ilgili belirtiler için diyet ilavesi olarak kullanılır. Yiyecek ve içeceklerde tatlandırıcı bir madde olarak kullanılır. Poliüretanlar, boyalar ve kaplamalar, yapıştırıcılar, dolgu macunları, suni deriler, kozmetik ve kişisel bakım ürünleri, biyolojik olarak parçalanabilir plastik, naylon, endüstriyel yağlayıcılar, ftalat içermeyen plastikleştiriciler ve boyalar ve pigmentler üretmek için kullanılır.
Farmasötik endüstrisinde, aktif farmasötik katkı maddeleri (adipik asit, N-metil pirolidinon, 2-pirolidinon, süksinat tuzları, vb.) Için bir başlangıç ?? materyali olarak aktif kalsiyum süksinatın hazırlanmasında, ilaç oluşumunda bir katkı maddesi olarak kullanılır , A vitamini ve anti-inflamatuar hazırlanmasında sedatif, antispasmer, antiplegm, antiphogistic, anrhoter, kontrasepsiyon ve kanser tedavisi ilaçları için ve toksik madde için panzehir olarak.

 

 


Süksinik asit, (CH2)2(CO2H)2 kimyasal formüllü bir dikarboksilik asit.[5] Adı, kehribar anlamına gelen Latince succinum' dan gelir. Canlı organizmalarda, süksinik asit, ATP yapımında yer alan elektron taşıma zincirinin 2. kompleksindeki süksinat dehidrojenaz enzimi tarafından fumarata dönüştürülen metabolik bir ara ürün olarak çoklu biyolojik rollere sahip olan bir anyon olan süksinat biçimini alır ve hücresel metabolik durumu yansıtan bir sinyal molekülü görevi görür. Gıda katkı maddesi E363 olarak pazarlanmaktadır. Süksinat, mitokondride, trikarboksilik asit döngüsü (TCA) ile üretilir. Süksinat, mitokondriyal matristen çıkabilir ve hücre dışı alanda olduğu gibi sitoplazmada da işlev görebilir, gen ekspresyonunu değiştirebilir, epigenetik durumu değiştirebilir veya hormon benzeri bir sinyal üretebilir. Bu haliyle, süksinat, hücresel metabolizmayı, özellikle ATP oluşumunu hücresel fonksiyonun düzenlenmesini birbirine bağlamaktadır. Süksinat sentezinin ve dolayısıyla ATP sentezinin düzensizliği, Leigh sendromu ve Melas sendromu gibi bazı genetik mitokondriyal hastalıklarda meydana gelir ve bozunma, malign transformasyon, iltihaplanma ve doku hasarı gibi patolojik durumlara yol açabilir.
Succinic Acid aşağıdaki işlemlerde kullanılabilir:

 

 


• Lityum (Li), kobaltın kullanılmış Li-ion pillerden ve magnezyum manyezit cevherinden çıkartılmasında bir sızdırma maddesi olarak.
• Yeni elastik poliesterlerin sentezi.
• Organik moleküllü kristallerin sentezinde kristalleşen bir ajan olarak.
Succinic Acid, parfümler için lake, boya ve ester üretimi dahil olmak üzere büyük ölçekli uygulamalarda kullanılmıştır. Polimer araştırmasında, Succinic Acidbiyouyumlu hibrid dendritik-lineer polyester-eterler hazırlamak için kullanılmıştır. Siksinik asit de dahil olmak üzere çeşitli 1,4-dikarboksilik asitlerl cis-itrakonazol'ün birlikte kristalleştirilmesi üzerine bir çalışma bildirildi. Succinic Acid, kızılötesi (IR) MALDI analitik yöntemlerde bir matris olarak kullanılmıştır. Kılcal bölge elektroforezi-elektrosprey iyonizasyon kütle spektrometrisini kullanarak Succinic Acidde dahil olmak üzere çeşitli düşük molekül ağırlıklı organik asitlerin analitik bir çalışması yayınlandı.

 

 


Yiyecek ve besin takviyesi
Bir gıda katkı maddesi ve diyet takviyesi olarak, 
Süksinik Asit genellikle ABD Gıda ve İlaç İdaresi tarafından güvenilir olarak kabul edilmektedir. Succinic Acidöncelikle gıda ve içecek endüstrisinde asitlik düzenleyicisi olarak kullanılır. Ayrıca lezzet verici bir madde olarak bulunur ve biraz ekşi ve sıkılaştırıcı bir bileşeni umami tadına katkıda bulunur. Farmasötik ürünlerdeki bir eksipiyan olarak, asitliği veya karşı iyonu kontrol etmek için de kullanılır. Süksinatı içeren ilaçlar, metoprolol süksinat, sumatriptan süksinat veya solifenasin süksinatı içerir.

 

 

Süksinik Asit dikarboksilik asittir. Süksinat anyon, sitrik asit veya TCA döngüsünün bir bileşenidir ve elektron transfer zincirine elektronlar verebilir. Süksinat dehidrogenaz (SDH), hem solunum zincirinin bir parçası hem de Krebs döngüsü olan mitokondriyal fonksiyonda önemli bir rol oynamaktadır. Kovalent bağlı bir FAD protez grubu olan SDH, birkaç farklı enzim substratı (süksinat ve fumarat) ve fizyolojik düzenleyicileri (oksaloasetat ve ATP) bağlayabilmektedir. Oksitleyici süksinat, SDH'yi, Krebs döngüsünün tamamında asetil-KoA'nın parçalanmasına katılan hızlı döngülü Krebs döngüsü bölümüne bağlar. Süksinat, n-butilmalonat- (veya fenilsukkinat) duyarlı dikarboksilat taşıyıcı tarafından, inorganik fosfat veya başka bir organik asit, örn. g. malat. (PMID: 16143825) Mitokondrial süksinat dehidrojenaz alt birimlerini kodlayan dört gendeki mutasyonlar, geniş bir yelpazede klinik sunumlarla (örn.,
Huntington hastalığı) ilişkilidir (PMID: 11803021) Succinic Acidson zamanlarda oncometabolite veya metabolizmaya neden olan kanser Bu organik asidin yüksek seviyeleri tümörleri çevreleyen tümörler veya biyolojik sıvılarda bulunabilir Onkojenik etki, prolil hidroksilaz içeren enzimleri inhibe etme kabiliyetine bağlı olarak ortaya çıkar .Birçok tümörde oksijen bulunabilirliği sınırlıdır (hipoksi) Hızlı hücre çoğalması ve sınırlı kan damarı büyümesi nedeniyle çok çabuk hipoksi yanıtının başlıca düzenleyicisi HIF transkripsiyon faktörüdür (HIF-alfa) Normal oksijen seviyeleri altında, HIF-alfa protein seviyeleri, sürekli bozulma nedeniyle çok düşüktür , prolil hidroksilaz alanı içeren enzimler PHD1, 2 ve 3 tarafından katalize edilen bir dizi post translasyonel modifikasyon olayının aracılık ettiği (ayrıca k HIF-alfa'yi hidroksillendiren ve bozunmaya yol açan EglN2, 1 ve 3 olarak bilinir). PHD enzimlerinin üçü de süksinat ile engellenmiştir.
Succinic Acid; poliüretanlar, boyalar ve kaplamalar, yapışkanlar, dolgu macunları, suni deriler, gıda ve lezzet katkıları, kozmetik ve kişisel bakım ürünleri, biyolojik olarak bozunabilir plastik, naylon, endüstriyel yağlayıcılar, ftalat içermeyen plastikleştiriciler, boyalar ve pigmentler ve farmasötik bileşikler olarak kullanılır.

 

 


Süksinik Asit kimyasal formülü (CH2) 2 (CO2H) 2 olan bir dikarboksilik asittir. İsmi amber anlamına gelen Latin süksinumdan türemiştir. Canlı organizmalarda 
Süksinik Asit , ATP yapımında rol oynayan elektron taşıma zincirinin kompleks 2'sinde enzim süksinat dehidrojenaz ile fumarat haline dönüştürülen bir metabolik ara madde olarak çoklu biyolojik rollere sahip olan bir anyon, süksinat şeklini alır ve hücresel metabolik durumu yansıtan bir sinyalleme molekülüdür. Süksinat, tüm organizmalar tarafından paylaşılan bir enerji veren işlem olan trikarboksilik asit döngüsü (TCA) yoluyla mitokondriyada üretilir.:
Seksiyon 17.1 Süksinat, mitokondriyal matriksten çıkabilir ve sitoplazmada da işlev görebilir. ekstraselüler alan, gen ekspresyon modellerini değiştirerek, epigenetik manzarayı modüle eden veya hormon benzeri sinyalleri gösteren. Bu şekilde süksinat, hücresel metabolizmayı, özellikle ATP oluşumunu, hücresel fonksiyonun düzenlenmesine bağlar. Süksinat sentezinin ve dolayısıyla ATP sentezinin disregülasyonu, Leigh sendromu ve Melas sendromu gibi bazı genetik mitokondriyal hastalıklarda olur ve degradasyon, malign transformasyon, enflamasyon ve doku zedelenmesi gibi patolojik koşullara yol açabilir.

Süksinik Asit yiyecek ve içecekler için bir lezzet verici madde olarak kullanılır. Beş heterosiklik bileşik üretmek, boyalar, parfümler, cilalar, foto kimyasallar, alkid reçineleri, plastikleştiriciler, metal işleme kimyasalları ve kaplamalar için bir ara madde olarak kullanılır. Ayrıca sedatifler, antispazanlar, antiplegm, antiphogistic, anrhoers, kontraseptifler ve kanser tedavisi için ilaçların üretiminde kullanılır.

 

 


Sporda Süksinik Asit 
Sporcular için Süksinik Asit , önemli fiziksel zorlama ile uğraşan bağışıklığı iyileştirmek için bir araç olarak gösterilmiştir. Ayrıca, gerekli enerji ve oksijeni sağlayarak kalbin çalışmasını olumlu yönde etkiler. Süksinik Asit , metabolik süreçlerin doğal bir uyarıcısı olduğundan, vücutta üretilir ve organlarda ve dokularda birikemez, kullanımından hiçbir yan etkisi yoktur.
Sporcular için kabul programı aşağıdaki gibidir:
Yemeklerden sonra günde bir kez 500 mg;
durumu iyileştirdikten sonra, günde 100-250 mg dozu azaltın, 2-3 dozlara bölünebilir.
Sıklıkla, sporcular refahı odaklanarak bireysel bir doz belirler. Artan miktarda Süksinik Asit (1500-3000 mg) kullanıyorsanız, ilacı alma süresi 10 günü geçmemelidir.
Artan dozlar kurslarda alınabilir: içmek için üç gün, sonra iki gün mola ve benzeri.
Kozmetikte kehribar asit
Süksinik Asit in rejeneratif ve gençleştirici özellikleri kozmetikte kullanılır. Soyma, maske ve masaj gibi uygulamalarda yaygın olarak kullanılır. Toz halinde saf madde kullanın. Yüz için Süksinik Asit li maskeler gençleştirici bir etkiye sahiptir, cildi temizler ve asla alerjiye neden olmaz. Bu ilaç aynı zamanda çeşitli kremler ve kozmetik sütün bileşimine dahildir.
Saçlarda, Süksinik Asit maskeler veya şampuan şeklinde uygulanır. Maske bukleleri yumuşatır, elastik ve esnek yapar. Saçların üstünde tutulması iki saat içinde olmalıdır. Kehribar şampuanı almak için, normal şampuanınıza birkaç asit kristal ekleyin ve saçınızı yıkayın. Bu tür ürünlerin düzenli kullanımı saç büyümesini iyileştirir ve donuk, hasar görmüş bukleler geri yükler.

 

Süksinik Asit (bütandioik asit), bitki ve hayvan dokularında doğal olarak oluşan bir dikarboksilik asittir. Kimyasal ayrıca "Kehribar Ruhu" olarak da bilinir. Süksinik Asit ilk keşfedildiğinde, toz haline getirilerek ve bir kum banyosu kullanılarak damıtılarak kehribardan ekstrakte edildi. Esas olarak romatizmal ağrı ve ağrılarda harici olarak kullanılmıştır.

Karboksilik asitlerden neredeyse sonsuz esterler elde edilebilir. Esterler, bir asidin bir alkol ile birleştirilmesi ve bir su molekülünün çıkarılmasıyla üretilir. Karboksilik asit esterleri çeşitli doğrudan ve dolaylı uygulamalarda kullanılır.

Düşük zincirli esterler, lezzet verici baz malzemeleri, plastikleştiriciler, çözücü taşıyıcılar ve birleştirme maddeleri olarak kullanılır. Daha yüksek zincirli bileşikler, metal işleme sıvıları, yüzey aktif cisimleri, yağlayıcılar, deterjanlar, yağlama maddeleri, emülgatörler, ıslatıcılar, tekstil işlemleri ve yumuşatıcılarda bileşenler olarak kullanılır.

Esterler ayrıca çeşitli hedef bileşiklerin üretimi için ara ürünler olarak kullanılır. Neredeyse sonsuz esterler, uygun uygulama seçimleri için çok çeşitli viskozite, özgül ağırlık, buhar basıncı, kaynama noktası ve diğer fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikler sağlar.

 

Ataman Chemicals © 2015 All Rights Reserved.