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GLYCINE (GLİSİN)

GLYCINE (GLİSİN)

CAS NO: 56-40-6

Synonyms:

Aminoacetic acid; Amino acetic acid; acid; amino; acetic; 2-Aminoethanoic acid; Glycocoll; glycol; glikol; glukol; glucol; glycine; 2-Aminoacetic acid; 56-40-6; aminoacetic acid; Glycocoll; Aminoethanoic acid; Glycolixir; Glycosthene; Aciport; Glicoamin; Glycin; H-Gly-OH; Padil; L-Glycine; Hampshire glycine; Leimzucker; Amitone; Acetic acid, amino-; Aminoazijnzuur; Glycine, non-medical; Sucre de gelatine; Gyn-hydralin; GLY (IUPAC abbrev); Glycinum; Corilin; Glyzin; Glycinum [INN-Latin]; Glicina [INN-Spanish; Glycine [INN]; Glykokoll; gly; Acide aminoacetique [INN-French]; Acido aminoacetico [INN-Spanish]; Acidum aminoaceticum [INN-Latin]; FEMA No. 3287; CCRIS 5915; HSDB 495; glycyl radical; AI3-04085; amino-Acetic acid; UNII-TE7660XO1C; NSC 25936; [14C]glycine; GLYCINE 1.5% IN PLASTIC CONTAINER; EINECS 200-272-2; MFCD00008131; CHEMBL773; AMINOACETIC ACID 1.5% IN PLASTIC CONTAINER; Glycine iron sulphate (1:1); TE7660XO1C; CHEBI:15428; 2-aminoaceticacid; DHMQDGOQFOQNFH-UHFFFAOYSA-N; aminoacetate; NSC25936; Athenon; polyglycine; NCGC00024503-01; Glicina; DSSTox_CID_667; Glycine, free base; Polyglycine II; Acido aminoacetico; Acide aminoacetique; DSSTox_RID_75720; DSSTox_GSID_20667; 25718-94-9; Acidum aminoaceticum; Glycine, 99%, ACS reagent; Glycine, 99+%, for analysis; Aminoessigsaeure; Hgly; CAS-56-40-6; Glycine, labeled with carbon-14; Glycine [USP:INN]; H2N-CH2-COOH; Glycine, homopolymer (VAN); Aminoessigsaure; Aminoethanoate; 18875-39-3; amino-Acetate; 2-aminoacetate; Glycine;; glycine USP; Glycine Technical; glycine-13c; [3H]glycine; Glycine, EP/USP; H-Gly; L-Gly; Gly-CO; Gly-OH; L-Glycine,(S); [14C]-glycine; Corilin (Salt/Mix); Glycine 1 M solution; PubChem18924; Tocris-0219; Glycine (H-Gly-OH); NH2CH2COOH; Glycine, >=99%; 13479-54-4; 13682-92-3; Aminoacetic acid,medicinal; Glycine (JP17/USP); Glycine, 99%, FCC; Biomol-NT_000195; bmse000089; bmse000977; WLN: Z1VQ; EC 200-272-2; Gly-253; GTPL727; AB-131/40217813; KSC205S9D; BPBio1_001222; GTPL4084; GTPL4635; DTXSID9020667; BDBM18133; Buffer Concentrate, pH 11.01; CTK1A5991; Glycine, >=99.0% (NT); Glycine, 98.5-101.5%; Pharmakon1600-01300021; BCP25965; CS-B1641; HY-Y0966; KS-000002MW; ZINC4658552; Glycine, ACS reagent, >=98.5%; Tox21_113575; ANW-32505; Glycine, 99%, natural, FCC, FG; LS-218; NSC-25936; NSC760120; STL194276; Glycine, purum, >=98.5% (NT); Glycine, tested according to Ph.Eur.; AKOS000119626; Glycine, for electrophoresis, >=99%; Tox21_113575_1; AM81781; DB00145; MCULE-2415764032; NSC-760120; RTC-066530; Glycine, BioUltra, >=99.0% (NT); Glycine, BioXtra, >=99% (titration); Glycine, SAJ special grade, >=99.0%; NCGC00024503-02; NCGC00024503-03; AK-77854; BP-31024; BR-77854; Glycine, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, 98%; SC-26884; AB1002628; DB-029870; ST2416448; TC-066530; FT-0083159; FT-0600491; G0099; G0317; Glycine, ReagentPlus(R), >=99% (HPLC); A20662; Aminoacetic acid; Aminoethanoic acid; Glycocoll; C00037; D00011; M-6155; M03001; L001246; Q620730; SR-01000597729; Glycine, certified reference material, TraceCERT(R); Q-201300; SR-01000597729-1; Q27115084; B72BA06C-60E9-4A83-A24A-A2D7F465BB65; F2191-0197; Glycine, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard; Z955123660; Glycine, BioUltra, for molecular biology, >=99.0% (NT); InChI=1/C2H5NO2/c3-1-2(4)5/h1,3H2,(H,4,5; UNII-0O72R8RF8A component DHMQDGOQFOQNFH-UHFFFAOYSA-N; Glycine, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard; Glycine, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material; Tris-tricine buffer; Tris-glycine buffer;Tris glycine buffer concentrate; Glycine, analytical standard, for nitrogen determination according to Kjeldahl method; Glycine, from non-animal source, meets EP, JP, USP testing specifications, suitable for cell culture, >=98.5%; Glycine, meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, 99-101% (based on anhydrous substance); Glycine, PharmaGrade, Ajinomoto, EP, JP, USP, manufactured under appropriate GMP controls for Pharma or Biopharmaceutical production, suitable for cell culture; Glycine, puriss. p.a., Reag. Ph. Eur., buffer substance, 99.7-101% (calc. to the dried substance); Acid, Aminoacetic; Aminoacetic Acid; Calcium Salt Glycine; Cobalt Salt Glycine; Copper Salt Glycine; Glycine; Glycine Carbonate (1:1), Monosodium Salt; Glycine Carbonate (2:1), Monolithium Salt; Glycine Carbonate (2:1), Monopotassium Salt; Glycine Carbonate (2:1), Monosodium Salt; Glycine Hydrochloride; Glycine Hydrochloride (2:1); Glycine Phosphate; Glycine Phosphate (1:1); Glycine Sulfate (3:1); Glycine, Calcium Salt; Glycine, Calcium Salt (2:1); Glycine, Cobalt Salt; Glycine, Copper Salt; Glycine, Monoammonium Salt; Glycine, Monopotassium Salt; Glycine, Monosodium Salt; Glycine, Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate; Hydrochloride, Glycine; Monoammonium Salt Glycine; Monopotassium Salt Glycine; Monosodium Salt Glycine; Phosphate, Glycine; Salt Glycine, Monoammonium; Salt Glycine, Monopotassium; Salt Glycine, Monosodium; Acide Aminoacétique; Acide Amino-Acétique; Aminoacetic Acid; Atheno; Free Base Glycine; G Salt; Glicina; Glycine de Base Libre; Glycocoll; Glycosthene; Iconyl; L-Glycine; Monazol; GLYCINE; GLİSİN; GLYSİN; AMİNO ASİT; AMINO ACID; AMINOALKOLIC ACID; AMİNO ALKALİK ASİT;SOJA; SOYA; SOY BEAN; SOJA BEAN; GLYCINE MAX; GENUS GLYCINE; FENUSA; FAMILY TENTHREEDINIDAE; ARTHROPOD GENUS; 2-AMINOACETIC ACID; ACETIC ACID,AMINO-; ACIDE AMINOACETIQUE; ACIDO AMINOACETIO; AMINO-ACETIC ACID; AMINOACETIC ACID; AMINOETHANOIC ACID; GLICINA; GLY; GLYCIN; GLYCINE ZWITTERION; GLYCOCOLL; H2N-CH2-COOH; LEIMZUCKER; 2-AMINOACETICACID; 2-AMINOETHANOIC ACID; 2-AZANYLACETIC ACID; ACIDUM AMINOACETICUM; ACIPORT; AMINO(CARBOXY)METHYL; AMINO-ACETICACID; AMINOAZIJNZUUR; AMINOESSIGSAEURE;AMITONE;CORILIN; GLICOAMIN; GLU; GLYCINE; WISTERIA; GLYCINE-RICH; GENUS GLYSINE; CHELATED; GLYCINE RESIDUE; TRIMETHYLGLYCINE; WISTARIA; YOSHİFUJİ; FUJİ; LANE; TONAİ; JAPANASE WİSTERİA GLYCINES; MILACEMIDE; CHOLYLGLYCINE; ALLYLGLYCINE;PENTAGLYCINE; GLYCINOL; GDA; GLYCINATE; GLYCINAL; GLYCINATE GLYCINASE; MONOSODIUM SALT; GLYSINE MONOPOTASSIUM SALT; KOBALT TUZU; SODYUM GLISIN; GLYZIN; GLICINE; GLISIN; GLİSİN; GLİYSİN; GLIYSIN; GLYCINE; GLYCIN; GLYCİN; GİLİSİN; GLİSİN; GLİSİNE; GILISIN; gılısın; GLISINE; glıcıne; glısın; glisin; gliysin; glıysın; glycıne; glycın; glycin; gilisin; glisin; glisine; glısıne; GLİSİN; GLISIN; GLISİN; gilisin; gılisin; glicin; glıcın; La glycine; glycine; glicin

 

 


GLYCINE

 

Compounds that could be considered to be precursors of glycine were tested by determining the excretion of labeled hippuric acid after administration of the isotopically-labeled compound together with sodium benzoate. Compounds that yielded glycine in considerable amount were DL-threonine, DL-allothreonine and glycolic acid. Only traces of glycine were derived from lactic acid, fructose and the β-carbon of serine.

 


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Infobox references
Glycine (symbol Gly or G;[5] /ˈɡlaɪsiːn/)[6] is an amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain. It is the simplest amino acid (since carbamic acid is unstable), with the chemical formula NH2‐CH2‐COOH. Glycine is one of the proteinogenic amino acids. It is encoded by all the codons starting with GG (GGU, GGC, GGA, GGG). Glycine is integral to the formation of alpha-helices in secondary protein structure due to its compact form. For the same reason, it is the most abundant amino acid in collagen triple-helices. Glycine is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter - interference with its release within the spinal cord (such as during a Clostridium tetani infection) can cause spastic paralysis due to uninhibited muscle contraction.

 

Glycine is a colorless, sweet-tasting crystalline solid. It is the only achiral proteinogenic amino acid. It can fit into hydrophilic or hydrophobic environments, due to its minimal side chain of only one hydrogen atom. The acyl radical is glycyl.

 

History and etymology
Glycine was discovered in 1820 by the French chemist Henri Braconnot when he hydrolyzed gelatin by boiling it with sulfuric acid.[7] He originally called it "sugar of gelatin",[8][9] but the French chemist Jean-Baptiste Boussingault showed that it contained nitrogen.[10] The American scientist Eben Norton Horsford, then a student of the German chemist Justus von Liebig, proposed the name "glycocoll";[11][12] however, the Swedish chemist Berzelius suggested the simpler name "glycine".[13][14] The name comes from the Greek word γλυκύς "sweet tasting"[15] (which is also related to the prefixes glyco- and gluco-, as in glycoprotein and glucose). In 1858, the French chemist Auguste Cahours determined that glycine was an amine of acetic acid.[16]

 

 

Production
Although glycine can be isolated from hydrolyzed protein, this is not used for industrial production, as it can be manufactured more conveniently by chemical synthesis.[17] The two main processes are amination of chloroacetic acid with ammonia, giving glycine and ammonium chloride,[18] and the Strecker amino acid synthesis,[19] which is the main synthetic method in the United States and Japan.[20] About 15 thousand tonnes are produced annually in this way.[21]

 

Glycine is also cogenerated as an impurity in the synthesis of EDTA, arising from reactions of the ammonia coproduct.[22]

 

Chemical reactions
Its acid-base properties are most important. In aqueous solution, glycine itself is amphoteric: at low pH the molecule can be protonated with a pKa of about 2.4 and at high pH it loses a proton with a pKa of about 9.6 (precise values of pKa depend on temperature and ionic strength).

 

Glycine-protonation-states-2D-skeletal.png

Glycine functions as a bidentate ligand for many metal ions. A typical complex is Cu(glycinate)2, i.e. Cu(H2NCH2CO2)2, which exists both in cis and trans isomers.

As a bifunctional molecule, glycine reacts with many reagents. These can be classified into N-centered and carboxylate-center reactions.

The amine undergoes the expected reactions. With acid chlorides, one obtains the amidocarboxylic acid, such as hippuric acid[23] and acetylglycine.[24] With nitrous acid, one obtains glycolic acid (van Slyke determination). With methyl iodide, the amine becomes quaternized to give betaine, a natural product:

 


Presence in foods
Food sources of glycine[40]
Food g/100g
Snacks, pork skins 11.04
Sesame seeds flour (low fat) 3.43
Beverages, protein powder (soy-based) 2.37
Seeds, safflower seed meal, partially defatted 2.22
Meat, bison, beef and others (various parts) 1.5-2.0
Gelatin desserts 1.96
Seeds, pumpkin and squash seed kernels 1.82
Turkey, all classes, back, meat and skin 1.79
Chicken, broilers or fryers, meat and skin 1.74
Pork, ground, 96% lean / 4% fat, cooked, crumbles 1.71
Bacon and beef sticks 1.64
Peanuts 1.63
Crustaceans, spiny lobster 1.59
Spices, mustard seed, ground 1.59
Salami 1.55
Nuts, butternuts, dried 1.51
Fish, salmon, pink, canned, drained solids 1.42
Almonds 1.42
Fish, mackerel 0.93
Cereals ready-to-eat, granola, homemade 0.81
Leeks, (bulb and lower-leaf portion), freeze-dried 0.7
Cheese, parmesan (and others), grated 0.56
Soybeans, green, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt 0.51
Bread, protein (includes gluten) 0.47
Egg, whole, cooked, fried 0.47
Beans, white, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 0.38
Lentils, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 0.37

 

 

Top 9 Benefits and Uses of Glycine
Glycine is an amino acid that your body uses to create proteins, which it needs for the growth and maintenance of tissue and for making important substances, such as hormones and enzymes.

 

Your body naturally produces glycine from other amino acids, but it's also found in protein-rich foods and available as a dietary supplement.

Along with being a component of protein, glycine has several other impressive health benefits.

 

Here are the top 9 health benefits and uses of glycine.
1. Needed to Produce a Powerful Antioxidant
Glycine is one of three amino acids that your body uses to make glutathione, a powerful antioxidant that helps protect your cells against oxidative damage caused by free radicals, which are thought to underlie many diseases (1Trusted Source).

 

Without enough glycine, your body produces less glutathione, which could negatively affect how your body handles oxidative stress over time (2Trusted Source, 3Trusted Source).

 

In addition, because glutathione levels naturally decline with age, ensuring that you get enough glycine as you get older may benefit your health.
SUMMARY
Glycine helps your body make glutathione, an important antioxidant that protects your body against cell damage.
2. A Component of Creatine
Glycine is also one of three amino acids that your body uses to make a compound called creatine.

 

Creatine provides your muscles with energy to perform quick, short bursts of activity, such as weightlifting and sprinting.

When combined with resistance training, supplementing with creatine has been shown to increase muscle size, strength and power (4Trusted Source, 5Trusted Source, 6Trusted Source).

It has also been studied for its beneficial effects on bone health, brain function and neurological conditions like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease (7Trusted Source, 8Trusted Source, 9Trusted Source).

While your body naturally creates creatine and it can be obtained through your diet, getting too little glycine may reduce how much you produce (10Trusted Source).

 

SUMMARY
Glycine is a component of creatine, a compound that provides your muscles with energy and has been associated with other health benefits, such as improved bone health and brain function.

 

 

3. The Main Amino Acid in Collagen
Collagen is a structural protein that contains high amounts of glycine. In fact, every third to fourth amino acid in collagen is glycine (11Trusted Source).

 

Collagen is the most abundant protein in your body. It provides strength for your muscles, skin, cartilage, blood, bones and ligaments.

Supplementing with collagen has been shown to benefit skin health, relieve joint pain and prevent bone loss (12Trusted Source, 13Trusted Source, 14Trusted Source).

Therefore, it's important that you get enough glycine to support your body's production of collagen.

 

SUMMARY
Glycine is the most abundant amino acid in collagen, a structural protein that has several health benefits, including for your skin, joints and bones.
4. May Improve Sleep Quality
Many people struggle to get a good night's rest, either because they have trouble falling or staying asleep.

 

While there are several ways you can improve your sleep quality, such as not drinking caffeinated beverages late in the day or avoiding bright screens a few hours before bedtime, glycine may also help.

This amino acid has a calming effect on your brain and could help you fall and stay asleep by lowering your core body temperature (15Trusted Source, 16Trusted Source).

Research in people with sleep issues has shown that taking 3 grams of glycine before bed decreases how long it takes to fall asleep, enhances sleep quality, lessens daytime sleepiness and improves cognition (17, 18).

For this reason, glycine may be a good alternative to prescription sleeping pills for improving sleep quality at night and tiredness during the day.

 

SUMMARY
Glycine may promote sleep and enhance the quality of your sleep through its calming effects on the brain and its ability to lower core body temperature.
5. May Protect Your Liver From Alcohol-Induced Damage
Too much alcohol can have damaging effects on your body, especially your liver.

 

There are three primary types of alcohol-induced liver damage (19Trusted Source):

 

Fatty liver: A buildup of fat inside your liver, increasing its size.
Alcoholic hepatitis: Caused by inflammation of the liver resulting from long-term, excessive drinking.
Alcoholic cirrhosis: The final phase of alcoholic liver disease, occurring when the liver cells are damaged and replaced by scar tissue.
Interestingly, research suggests that glycine may reduce the harmful effects of alcohol on your liver by preventing inflammation.

 

It has been shown to reduce concentrations of alcohol in the blood of alcohol-fed rats by stimulating the metabolism of alcohol in the stomach rather than the liver, which prevented the development of fatty liver and alcoholic cirrhosis (20Trusted Source).

What's more, glycine may also help reverse liver damage caused by excessive alcohol intake in animals.

While moderate alcohol-induced liver damage can be reversed by abstaining from alcohol, glycine may improve the recovery process.

In a study in rats with alcohol-induced liver damage, the liver cell health returned to baseline 30% faster in a group fed a glycine-containing diet for two weeks compared to a control group (21Trusted Source).

Despite promising finds, studies on the effects of glycine on alcohol-induced liver damage are limited to animals and cannot be translated to humans (22Trusted Source, 23Trusted Source, 24Trusted Source).

 

SUMMARY
Eating a diet with glycine decreases and reverses alcohol-induced liver injury in rats, but its effects in humans are unknown.
6. May Protect Your Heart
Increasing evidence suggests that glycine offers protection against heart disease.

 

It prevents the accumulation of a compound that, in high amounts, has been linked to atherosclerosis, the hardening and narrowing of the arteries (25Trusted Source, 26Trusted Source, 27Trusted Source, 28Trusted Source).

This amino acid may also improve your body's ability to use nitric oxide, an important molecule that increases blood flow and lowers blood pressure (29Trusted Source).

In an observational study in over 4,100 people with chest pains, higher levels of glycine were associated with a lower risk of heart disease and heart attacks at a 7.4-year follow-up (28Trusted Source).

After accounting for cholesterol-lowering medications, the researchers also observed a more favorable blood cholesterol profile in people who had higher glycine levels (28Trusted Source).

What's more, glycine has been found to reduce several risk factors of heart disease in rats fed a high-sugar diet (29Trusted Source).

Eating and drinking too much added sugar can raise blood pressure, increase levels of fat in your blood and promote dangerous fat gain around the belly - all of which can promote heart disease (30Trusted Source).

While encouraging, clinical studies on the effects of glycine on heart disease risk in humans are needed before it can be recommended (31Trusted Source).

 


SUMMARY
Supplementing with glycine may improve impaired insulin action, a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. However, research to make any specific recommendations for its use in people with the condition is insufficient.
8. May Protect Against Muscle Loss
Glycine may reduce muscle wasting, a condition that occurs with aging, malnutrition and when your body is under stress, such as with cancer or severe burns.

 

Muscle wasting leads to a harmful reduction in muscle mass and strength, which declines functional status and can complicate other potentially present diseases (38Trusted Source).

The amino acid leucine has been studied as a treatment for muscle wasting, as it strongly inhibits muscle breakdown and enhances muscle building (39Trusted Source).

However, several changes in the body during muscle-wasting conditions impair the effectiveness of leucine for stimulating muscle growth.

Interestingly, in mice with muscle wasting conditions, such as cancer, research has shown that glycine was able to stimulate muscle growth whereas leucine was not (40Trusted Source, 41Trusted Source).

Therefore, glycine holds promise for improving health by protecting muscles from wasting during various wasting conditions (42Trusted Source).

Still, more research in humans is needed.

 

SUMMARY
Glycine may preserve muscle mass in wasting conditions, such as cancer, malnutrition and burns, though more research in humans is needed.
9. Easy to Add to Your Diet
Glycine is found in varying amounts in meat, especially in tough cuts like the chuck, round and brisket.

 

You can also get glycine from gelatin, a substance made from collagen that's added to various food products to improve consistency.

Other and more practical ways to increase your intake of glycine include:

 

Add It to Foods and Drinks
Glycine is readily available as a dietary supplement in capsule or powder form. If you don't like taking pills, the powder form dissolves easily in water and has a sweet taste.

 

In fact, the name glycine is derived from the Greek word for "sweet."

Due to its sweet taste, you can easily incorporate glycine powder into your diet by adding it to:

 

Coffee and tea
Soups
Oatmeal
Protein shakes
Yogurt
Pudding
Take Collagen Supplements
Glycine is the main amino acid in collagen, the main structural protein of connective tissue, such as bone, skin, ligaments, tendons and cartilage.

 

Accordingly, you can boost your glycine intake by taking collagen protein supplements.

This is likely more efficient, as glycine competes with other amino acids for absorption and is therefore absorbed less efficiently by itself than when it's bound to other amino acids, as in the case of collagen (43Trusted Source, 44Trusted Source).

 

Is Glycine Safe?
Supplementing with glycine is safe in appropriate amounts.

 

Studies have used up to 90 grams of glycine per day over several weeks without serious side effects (45Trusted Source).

For comparison, the standard dose used in studies is about 3-5 grams per day.

 

SUMMARY
Glycine powder is readily available and can easily be added to your favorite drinks and some foods. Collagen supplements are also an efficient way to boost your glycine intake. Both methods are a safe way to get more of this important nutrient.
The Bottom Line
Glycine is an amino acid with many impressive health benefits.

 

Your body needs glycine to make important compounds, such as glutathione, creatine and collagen.

This amino acid may also protect your liver from alcohol-induced damage and improve sleep quality and heart health.

What's more, glycine may also benefit people with type 2 diabetes and protect against muscle loss that occurs with muscle-wasting conditions.

You can increase your intake of this important nutrient by eating some meat products, by adding the powdered supplement form to drinks and foods or by supplementing with collagen.

Glycine

 

Properties
Chemical formula
C2H5NO2
Molar mass 75.067 g·mol-1
Appearance White solid
Density 1.1607 g/cm3[2]
Melting point 233 °C (451 °F; 506 K) (decomposition)
Solubility in water
24.99 g/100 mL (25 °C)[3]
Solubility soluble in pyridine 
sparingly soluble in ethanol 
insoluble in ether
Acidity (pKa) 2.34 (carboxyl), 9.6 (amino)[4]
Magnetic susceptibility (χ)
-40.3·10-6 cm3/mol
Pharmacology
ATC code
B05CX03 (WHO)
Hazards
Safety data sheet See: data page
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
LD50 (median dose)
2600 mg/kg (mouse, oral)
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
Refractive index (n),
Dielectric constant (εr), etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
solid-liquid-gas
Spectral data
UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
☑ verify (what is ☑☒ ?)
Infobox references
Glycine (symbol Gly or G;[5] /ˈɡlaɪsiːn/)[6] is an amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain. It is the simplest amino acid (since carbamic acid is unstable), with the chemical formula NH2‐CH2‐COOH. Glycine is one of the proteinogenic amino acids. It is encoded by all the codons starting with GG (GGU, GGC, GGA, GGG). Glycine is integral to the formation of alpha-helices in secondary protein structure due to its compact form. For the same reason, it is the most abundant amino acid in collagen triple-helices. Glycine is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter - interference with its release within the spinal cord (such as during a Clostridium tetani infection) can cause spastic paralysis due to uninhibited muscle contraction.
Glycine is a colorless, sweet-tasting crystalline solid. It is the only achiral proteinogenic amino acid. It can fit into hydrophilic or hydrophobic environments, due to its minimal side chain of only one hydrogen atom. The acyl radical is glycyl.
History and etymology
Glycine was discovered in 1820 by the French chemist Henri Braconnot when he hydrolyzed gelatin by boiling it with sulfuric acid.[7] He originally called it "sugar of gelatin",[8][9] but the French chemist Jean-Baptiste Boussingault showed that it contained nitrogen.[10] The American scientist Eben Norton Horsford, then a student of the German chemist Justus von Liebig, proposed the name "glycocoll";[11][12] however, the Swedish chemist Berzelius suggested the simpler name "glycine".[13][14] The name comes from the Greek word γλυκύς "sweet tasting"[15] (which is also related to the prefixes glyco- and gluco-, as in glycoprotein and glucose). In 1858, the French chemist Auguste Cahours determined that glycine was an amine of acetic acid.[16]
Production
Although glycine can be isolated from hydrolyzed protein, this is not used for industrial production, as it can be manufactured more conveniently by chemical synthesis.[17] The two main processes are amination of chloroacetic acid with ammonia, giving glycine and ammonium chloride,[18] and the Strecker amino acid synthesis,[19] which is the main synthetic method in the United States and Japan.[20] About 15 thousand tonnes are produced annually in this way.[21]

 

Glycine is also cogenerated as an impurity in the synthesis of EDTA, arising from reactions of the ammonia coproduct.[22]

 

Chemical reactions
Its acid-base properties are most important. In aqueous solution, glycine itself is amphoteric: at low pH the molecule can be protonated with a pKa of about 2.4 and at high pH it loses a proton with a pKa of about 9.6 (precise values of pKa depend on temperature and ionic strength).
Glycine functions as a bidentate ligand for many metal ions. A typical complex is Cu(glycinate)2, i.e. Cu(H2NCH2CO2)2, which exists both in cis and trans isomers.

 

As a bifunctional molecule, glycine reacts with many reagents. These can be classified into N-centered and carboxylate-center reactions.

 

The amine undergoes the expected reactions. With acid chlorides, one obtains the amidocarboxylic acid, such as hippuric acid[23] and acetylglycine.[24] With nitrous acid, one obtains glycolic acid (van Slyke determination). With methyl iodide, the amine becomes quaternized to give betaine, a natural product:
Glycine condenses with itself to give peptides, beginning with the formation of glycylglycine:

 

Pyrolysis of glycine or glycylglycine gives 2,5-diketopiperazine, the cyclic diamide.

 

Metabolism
Biosynthesis
Glycine is not essential to the human diet, as it is biosynthesized in the body from the amino acid serine, which is in turn derived from 3-phosphoglycerate, but the metabolic capacity for glycine biosynthesis does not satisfy the need for collagen synthesis.[25] In most organisms, the enzyme serine hydroxymethyltransferase catalyses this transformation via the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate:[26]

 

 

serine + tetrahydrofolate → glycine + N5,N10-Methylene tetrahydrofolate + H2O
In the liver of vertebrates, glycine synthesis is catalyzed by glycine synthase (also called glycine cleavage enzyme). This conversion is readily reversible:[26]

 

 

CO2 + NH+
4 + N5,N10-Methylene tetrahydrofolate + NADH + H+ ⇌ Glycine + tetrahydrofolate + NAD+
Degradation
Glycine is degraded via three pathways. The predominant pathway in animals and plants is the reverse of the glycine synthase pathway mentioned above. In this context, the enzyme system involved is usually called the glycine cleavage system:[26]

 

 

Glycine + tetrahydrofolate + NAD+ ⇌ CO2 + NH+
4 + N5,N10-Methylene tetrahydrofolate + NADH + H+
In the second pathway, glycine is degraded in two steps. The first step is the reverse of glycine biosynthesis from serine with serine hydroxymethyl transferase. Serine is then converted to pyruvate by serine dehydratase.[26]

 

In the third pathway of its degradation, glycine is converted to glyoxylate by D-amino acid oxidase. Glyoxylate is then oxidized by hepatic lactate dehydrogenase to oxalate in an NAD+-dependent reaction.[26]

The half-life of glycine and its elimination from the body varies significantly based on dose.[27] In one study, the half-life varied between 0.5 and 4.0 hours.[27]

Glycine is extremely sensitive to antibiotics which target folate, and blood Glycine levels drop severely within a minute of antibiotic injections. Some antibiotics can deplete more than 90% of Glycine within a few minutes of being administered.[28]

 

Physiological function
The principal function of glycine is as a precursor to proteins. Most proteins incorporate only small quantities of glycine, a notable exception being collagen, which contains about 35% glycine due to its periodically repeated role in the formation of collagen's helix structure in conjunction with hydroxyproline.[26][29] In the genetic code, glycine is coded by all codons starting with GG, namely GGU, GGC, GGA and GGG.

 

 

As a biosynthetic intermediate
In higher eukaryotes, δ-aminolevulinic acid, the key precursor to porphyrins, is biosynthesized from glycine and succinyl-CoA by the enzyme ALA synthase. Glycine provides the central C2N subunit of all purines.[26]

 

 

As a neurotransmitter
Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, especially in the spinal cord, brainstem, and retina. When glycine receptors are activated, chloride enters the neuron via ionotropic receptors, causing an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP). Strychnine is a strong antagonist at ionotropic glycine receptors, whereas bicuculline is a weak one. Glycine is a required co-agonist along with glutamate for NMDA receptors. In contrast to the inhibitory role of glycine in the spinal cord, this behaviour is facilitated at the (NMDA) glutamatergic receptors which are excitatory.[30] The LD50 of glycine is 7930 mg/kg in rats (oral),[31] and it usually causes death by hyperexcitability.

 

 

Uses
In the US, glycine is typically sold in two grades: United States Pharmacopeia ("USP"), and technical grade. USP grade sales account for approximately 80 to 85 percent of the U.S. market for glycine. If purity greater than the USP standard is needed, for example for intravenous injections, a more expensive pharmaceutical grade glycine can be used. Technical grade glycine, which may or may not meet USP grade standards, is sold at a lower price for use in industrial applications, e.g., as an agent in metal complexing and finishing.[32]

 

Animal and human foods

 

Structure of cis-Cu(glycinate)2(H2O).[33]
Glycine is not widely used in foods for its nutrional value, except in infusions. Instead glycine's role in food chemistry is as a flavorant. It is mildly sweet, and it counters the aftertaste of saccharine. It also has preservative properties, perhaps owing to its complexation to metal ions. Metal glycinate complexes, e.g. copper(II) glycinate are used as supplements for animal feeds.[21]

 

 

Chemical feedstock
Glycine is an intermediate in the synthesis of a variety of chemical products. It is used in the manufacture of the herbicides glyphosate,[34] iprodione, glyphosine, imiprothrin, and eglinazine.[21] It is used as an intermediate of the medicine such as thiamphenicol.[citation needed]

 

 

Laboratory research
Glycine is a significant component of some solutions used in the SDS-PAGE method of protein analysis. It serves as a buffering agent, maintaining pH and preventing sample damage during electrophoresis. Glycine is also used to remove protein-labeling antibodies from Western blot membranes to enable the probing of numerous proteins of interest from SDS-PAGE gel. This allows more data to be drawn from the same specimen, increasing the reliability of the data, reducing the amount of sample processing, and number of samples required. This process is known as stripping.

 

 

Presence in space
The presence of glycine outside the earth was confirmed in 2009, based on the analysis of samples that had been taken in 2004 by the NASA spacecraft Stardust from comet Wild 2 and subsequently returned to earth. Glycine had previously been identified in the Murchison meteorite in 1970.[35] The discovery of cometary glycine bolstered the theory of panspermia, which claims that the "building blocks" of life are widespread throughout the Universe.[36] In 2016, detection of glycine within Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by the Rosetta spacecraft was announced.[37]

 

The detection of glycine outside the solar system in the interstellar medium has been debated.[38] In 2008, the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy discovered the spectral lines of a glycine-like molecule aminoacetonitrile in the Large Molecule Heimat, a giant gas cloud near the galactic center in the constellation Sagittarius.[39]

 

Presence in foods
Food sources of glycine[40]
Food g/100g
Snacks, pork skins 11.04
Sesame seeds flour (low fat) 3.43
Beverages, protein powder (soy-based) 2.37
Seeds, safflower seed meal, partially defatted 2.22
Meat, bison, beef and others (various parts) 1.5-2.0
Gelatin desserts1.96
Seeds, pumpkin and squash seed kernels 1.82
Turkey, all classes, back, meat and skin 1.79
Chicken, broilers or fryers, meat and skin 1.74
Pork, ground, 96% lean / 4% fat, cooked, crumbles 1.71
Bacon and beef sticks 1.64
Peanuts 1.63
Crustaceans, spiny lobster 1.59
Spices, mustard seed, ground 1.59
Salami 1.55
Nuts, butternuts, dried 1.51
Fish, salmon, pink, canned, drained solids 1.42
Almonds 1.42
Fish, mackerel 0.93
Cereals ready-to-eat, granola, homemade 0.81
Leeks, (bulb and lower-leaf portion), freeze-dried 0.7
Cheese, parmesan (and others), grated 0.56
Soybeans, green, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt 0.51
Bread, protein (includes gluten) 0.47
Egg, whole, cooked, fried 0.47
Beans, white, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 0.38
Lentils, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, with salt 0.37
See also
Trimethylglycine
Amino acid neurotransmitter
Glycine is an amino acid, a building block for protein. It is not considered an "essential amino acid" because the body can make it from other chemicals. A typical diet contains about 2 grams of glycine daily. The primary sources are protein-rich foods including meat, fish, dairy, and legumes.

 

Glycine is used for treating schizophrenia, stroke, sleep problems, cystic fibrosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), metabolic syndrome, and some rare inherited metabolic disorders. It is also used to protect kidneys from the harmful side effects of certain drugs used after organ transplantation as well as the liver from harmful effects of alcohol. Glycine may also be used to reduce the risk of psychosis. Other uses include cancer prevention and memory enhancement.

Some people apply glycine directly to the skin to treat leg ulcers and heal other wounds.

 

How does it work?
The body uses glycine to make proteins. Glycine is also involved in the transmission of chemical signals in the brain, so there is interest in trying it for schizophrenia and improving memory. Some researchers think glycine may have a role in cancer prevention because it seems to interfere with the blood supply needed by certain tumors.
Leg ulcers. Applying cream containing glycine and other amino acids seems to reduce pain and slightly improve the healing of leg ulcers.
Schizophrenia. Taking glycine by mouth along with conventional medicines seems to reduce certain symptoms of schizophrenia, called negative symptoms, in some people who don't respond to treatment with conventional medicines.
Stroke. Putting glycine under the tongue may help to limit brain damage caused by an ischemic stroke when started within 6 hours of having the stroke. An ischemic stroke is caused by the blockage of a blood vessel (usually by a clot) in the brain. Brain cells beyond the obstruction don't receive oxygen and begin to die, causing irreversible damage.
Taking glycine by mouth might reduce seizures in people with this condition.
Mental performance. Early research shows that taking glycine by mouth might improve memory and mental performance.
Cystic fibrosis. Early research shows that taking glycine by mouth might improve lung function and breathing by a small amount in patients with cystic fibrosis.
Taking glycine by mouth along with L-carnitine might help treat this condition.
Sleep quality. Taking glycine before bedtime for 2-4 days seems to improve sleep in people with poor sleep quality. Taking glycine before bedtime might also reduce feelings of tiredness the following day after a shortened night of sleep. But it doesn't seem to prevent tiredness after several shortened nights of sleep.
Glycine is an amino acid, one of 20 used to make proteins in the human body. The body produces it naturally.

 

Glycine is also found in high-protein foods such as:

 

Meat
Fish
Dairy products
Legumes
It's estimated that we get about 2 grams of glycine a day from food sources. As a supplement, it's taken in much higher amounts.

 

 

Why do people take glycine?
Glycine has numerous proposed uses. Few of those suggested uses have enough evidence to fully back glycine's effectiveness.

 

Glycine has shown the most promise as a part of a treatment plan for schizophrenia. In several studies, glycine boosted the effectiveness of other schizophrenia drugs when taken at doses of .6 grams per kilogram of weight per day. However, glycine may have the opposite effect when paired with the antipsychotic drug clozapine (Clozaril, Versacloz).

A small study suggests that glycine may help people with type 2 diabetes control their blood sugar. But more research is needed to back up that result.

In a much larger study, small doses of glycine (1 to 2 grams dissolved under the tongue each day) showed some potential for limiting brain damage caused by ischemic stroke if treatment begins within several hours of a stroke. There is some concern, though, that high doses of glycine could make the damage caused by a stroke worse.

Studies done on animals hint at glycine's potential as an anticancer agent. But there's no evidence yet that it could help prevent or treat cancer in people. The same can be said for its ability to protect the liver and kidneys from damage caused by chemicals such as alcohol.

Leg ulcers, which can be caused by poor circulation, diabetes, kidney failure, and other health problems, have shown some improvement after treatment with a cream containing glycine and other amino acids.

 

One study showed some improvement in memory among young and middle-aged men. But the results need to be confirmed by more research.
Glycine is also marketed for a host of other uses, despite the lack of scientific evidence that it is effective or safe for any of them. For example, glycine is marketed as a way to:
Again, there is no reliable evidence that it works for such uses.

 

 

Optimal therapeutic doses for glycine have not been set for any condition. Also, as with supplements generally, the quality of the active ingredients in products that contain glycine varies from maker to maker.
What are the risks of taking glycine?
Glycine appears to be safe, even at doses of up to 9 grams for 3 days. But glycine's safety has not been fully tested or studied. Particular caution should be taken when considering glycine for young children, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and people with liver or kidney disease.
People being treated with clozapine should avoid taking glycine. Also people who have had a stroke should not take glycine without the supervision of a doctor.
A few people have reported nausea, vomiting, and upset stomach after taking glycine. Such reports have been rare, and the symptoms have gone away after glycine was discontinued.
Glycine
Glycine is an excitatory amino acid that can modulate NMDA receptors and the glycine-binding site has been posited as a novel avenue for antidepressant treatment.42
Synthesis, Metabolism, and Anatomy
Glycine, a simple amino acid not essential to the human diet, acts not only as a powerful inhibitory neurotransmitter but also paradoxically as a co-agonist or modulator of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate at NMDA receptors. Hydroxymethyl transferase converts the amino acid serine to glycine.
Glycine's inhibitory activity acts on the motor neurons of the ventral horn of the spinal cord and the brainstem. Under normal circumstances, glycine provides inhibition of muscle tone that balances the excitation of muscle tone provided by other neurotransmitters. Several different metabolic pathways inactivate it.

 

 

Glycine oxidase (ThiO) catalyzes the oxidation of glycine (1) to the glycine imine 23. The ThiO structure, with N-acetylglycine bound at the active site, has been determined. This structure, as well as the efficient utilization of cyclopropyl glycine as a substrate, supports a hydride transfer mechanism (Figure 7).38
Glycine is a constituent of glutathione, an antioxidant tripeptide found in high concentrations in intestinal epithelial cells. The availability of glycine has potential to control the cellular levels of glutathione in enterocytes. There are two different transporters for glycine in mammalian cells, glycine transport 1 and 2 (GLYT1 and GLYT2).
Glycine is a constituent of glutathione, an antioxidant tripeptide found in high concentrations in intestinal epithelial cells. The availability of glycine controls the levels of glutathione in enterocytes. There are two different transporters for glycine in mammalian cells, namely
The main glycine receptor is a Cl-channel, so its activation will promote membrane hyperpolarization and reduce neuronal responsiveness. Glycine activity in the synapse is quenched by reuptake via specific transporters into presynaptic terminals and perisynaptic glial cells. The glia can release glycine, suggesting that glycine from this source may also serve as a neuromodulator. Some inhibitory synapses can simultaneously release GABA and glycine. During development, glycine may act transiently as an excitatory transmitter to help guide the maturation of CNS neurons.
Application
Glycine has been used in whole-cell patch clamp recording to measure inward NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) currents.[4] It has also been used as a model organic system in crystallography to demonstrate a novel acoustic nebulization platform.
Biochem/physiol Actions
Glycine is a non-essential amino acid.[1] Influx of calcium through the cell membrane is mediated by glycine-gated channel. Glycine participates in the synthesis of porphyrins, purine and serine. It also serves as a competitive agonist for glutamate in binding to the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors.[2] Glycine synthesis might be increased in rapidly proliferating cancer cells, due to increased demand for the amino acid.[1]
Glycine, the simplest amino acid, obtainable by hydrolysis of proteins. Sweet-tasting, it was among the earliest amino acids to be isolated from gelatin (1820). Especially rich sources include gelatin and silk fibroin. Glycine is one of several so-called nonessential amino acids for mammals; i.e., they can synthesize it from the amino acids serine and threonine and from other sources and do not require dietary sources. The chemical structure of glycine is
You might not know it by name, but the tiny amino acid glycine is hard at work in your body right now, maintaining strength and support in your muscles and bones, helping keep your metabolism functioning right, supporting a healthy brain, and contributing to a good night's sleep.

 

For all its power to support the body's health and natural capacity for healing, glycine has gotten strangely little attention as a natural remedy. Let's take a look at some of what we know today about glycine-how it works in the body, and what additional glycine might do to affect your health and sleep.

What is glycine?

Glycine (also known as 2-Aminoacetic Acid) is an amino acid and a neurotransmitter. The body produces glycine on its own, synthesized from other natural biochemicals, most often serine, but also choline and threonine. We also consume glycine through food. This amino acid is found in high-protein foods including meat, fish, eggs, dairy and legumes. A daily diet typically includes about 2 grams of glycine.

Glycine is a neurotransmitter with the ability to be both excitatory and inhibitory, meaning it can function both to stimulate brain and nervous system activity, or to quiet it.

People use glycine as an oral supplement for a range of purposes, including improving sleep, enhancing memory, and increasing insulin sensitivity. Glycine is also available in topical form, and used to heal wounds and treat skin ulcers.

Glycine has a sweet taste, and is manufactured commercially as a sweetener and included in products such as cosmetics and antacids. Its name comes from the Greek word, glykys, which means "sweet."

Glycine is sometimes used in the treatment of schizophrenia, typically alongside conventional medication, to help reduce symptoms. Glycine is also given orally to patients who've suffered ischemic stroke (the most common type of stroke), as a treatment to help limit damage to the brain within the first six hours of the stroke.

How does Glycine work?

Glycine is considered among the most important amino acids for the body. It exerts widespread influence over our bodies' systems, structure, and general health, including cardiovascular, cognitive, and metabolic health. Here are some of the most important and well-understood roles that glycine plays in our health and functioning:

 

As an amino acid, glycine works as a protein builder in the body. In particular, glycine enables the production of collagen, a protein that is an essential component of muscles, tendon, skin, and bones. Collagen is the most commonly occurring protein in the body, comprising roughly a third of all body protein. It does no less than give the body its fundamental structure and strength. Collagen is the protein that helps skin maintain elasticity. Glycine also facilitates the production of creatine, a nutrient stored in and used by both the muscles and the brain for energy. 
Glycine is involved in digestion, specifically in the breakdown of fatty acids in foods. It also helps maintain healthy levels of acidity in the digestive tract.

 

Glycine is also involved in the body's production of DNA and RNA, the genetic instructions that deliver our body's cells the information they need to function.

This amino acid helps to regulate blood sugar levels and move blood sugar to cells and tissues throughout the body, to be consumed as energy.

Glycine helps to regulate the body's immune response, to limit unhealthful inflammation and spur healing.

As a neurotransmitter, glycine both stimulates and inhibits cells in the brain and central nervous system, affecting cognition, mood, appetite and digestion, immune function, pain perception, and sleep. Glycine is also involved in the production of other biochemicals that influence these body functions. In particular, glycine helps the body make serotonin, a hormone and neurotransmitter that has significant effects on sleep and mood. It also influences key receptors in the brain that affect learning and memory.

Benefits of Glycine

For sleep: Glycine influences sleep in a number of ways. Studies show that higher levels of this amino acid may:

 

Help you fall asleep more quickly.
Increase your sleep efficiency.
Reduce symptoms of insomnia.
Improve sleep quality and promote deeper more restful sleep.
How does glycine accomplish all of this sleep-promoting work? It appears to affect sleep in at least a couple of important ways:

 

 

Glycine helps lower body temperature. Glycine works to increase blood flow to the body's extremities, which reduces core body temperature. I've written before about how the body's fluctuating temperature affects sleep-wake cycles, and your ability to initially fall asleep. A slight drop in body temp is a key part of the body's physical progression into sleep. A recent study of the effects of glycine as a supplement showed it triggered a drop in body temperature and at the same time helped people both fall asleep more quickly and spend more time in REM sleep. Other research has shown supplemental glycine may help you move more quickly into deep, slow wave sleep. 
Glycine increases serotonin levels. Research shows oral glycine elevates serotonin, reduces symptoms of insomnia, and improves sleep quality.Glycine is active in the hippocampus, an area of the brain important for memory and learning. In supplement form, glycine appears to deliver benefits for daytime cognitive function. In the same study that showed supplemental glycine made it easier to fall asleep and get to slow-wave sleep, scientists also found people scored higher on daytime cognition tests. And supplemental glycine has been shown to improve both memory and attention in young adults. Scientists are actively investigating the use of glycine in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. 
Glycine works to support immune health and keep inflammation in check, offering protection to cardiovascular function. It also functions as an antioxidant, helping to trap and contain damaged cells that can cause disease. Higher levels of glycine have been associated with a lower risk of heart attack, and there's some evidence that glycine may help protect against high blood pressure. Still, the full relationship between glycine and cardiovascular health is something scientists are still working to better understand. 
Glycine plays an important role in a healthy metabolism. Low levels of glycine are linked to greater risk for development of type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, higher glycine levels are associated with lower risk for this metabolic disorder. But it's not yet clear what the cause and effect are in this relationship: whether low glycine levels directly contribute to metabolic dysfunction that lead to diabetes, or whether they're a result of metabolic dysfunction already in progress. Studies show glycine can be effective in lowering blood sugar levels and increasing insulin production in healthy adults. In people with type 2 diabetes, studies have shown that glycine deficiencies can be improved by use of oral glycine. Other research suggests that in people with diabetes, oral glycine can lower blood sugar levels. 
For sleep: A range of 3-5 grams of glycine taken orally before bed has been used effectively to help sleep in scientific studies. 
For blood sugar: A range of 3-5 grams of glycine taken orally at meals has been used effectively to reduce blood sugar in scientific studies. 
Glycine is generally well tolerated by healthy adults. Side effects are uncommon, but may include: 
There are commonly used medications and supplements that have scientifically-identified interactions with glycine. People who take these or any other medications and supplements should consult with a physician before beginning to use glycine as a supplement.

 

 

GLİSİN

 

Glycin - Glycine.svg
IUPAC adı[gizle]
Glisin
Tanımlayıcılar
CAS numarası 56-40-6
PubChem 750
EC-numarası 200-272-2
SMILES 
[göster]
InChI 
[göster]
ChemSpider 730
Özellikler
Molekül formülü C2H5NO2
Molekül kütlesi 75.07g·mol-1
Görünüm Katı,rengsiz kiristal görünümlü
Yoğunluk 1.607 g·cm-3
Erime noktası 
232-236 °C' parçalanır

 

 

Çözünürlük (su içinde) Suda iyi çözülür: 249,9 g·kg-1 25 °C'ta; 391,0 g·kg-1 50 °C'ta; 543,9 g·kg-1i 75 °C'ta; 671,7 g·kg-1 100 °C'ta)
Tehlikeler
AB İndeksi Belirtilmemiş
Belirtilmiş yerler dışında verilmiş olan veriler, Standart sıcaklık ve basınçtadır. (25 °C, 100 kPa)
Bilgi kutusu kaynakları
Glisin (kısaltılmışı Gly ya da G) formülü NH2CH2COOH olan apolar bir aminoasittir. Glisin kodonları GGU, GGC, GGA, GGG cf. genetik kodtur.Yapısal olarak proteinlerde bulunan 20 aminoasit arasında en basit olanıdır. Yan zinciri sadece bir hidrojen atomundan ibarettir. Glisindeki α-karbon atomu da bir hidrojene bağlı olduğu için, glisin optik olarak aktif değildir, diğer bir deyişle optik izomeri bulunmamaktadır.

 

 


İçindekiler
1 Özellikleri
2 Tarihi
3 Ticari Üretimi ve Kullanımı
3.1 Kimyasal hammadde
4 Fizyolojik fonksiyonları
4.1 Yer aldığı metabolik olaylar
4.2 Metabolik bozuklukları
5 Kaynakça
Özellikleri
Yan zincirinin olmamasından dolayı iki polipeptid ana zincirinin (veya aynı polipeptid segmentinin) birbirlerina oldukça yakınlaşabilecekleri bölümleri oluştururlar. Ayrıca glisin, diğer amino asitlerden çok daha fazla esnektir, bu sayede ana zincirin hareket ettiği ve hatta kırıldığı bölümlerdir.

 

Glisin en küçük aminoasit olması nedeniyle diğer aminoasitlerin sığamadığı birçok yere sığabilmektedir. Örnek olarak, kollajen heliksinin içinde aminoasitlerden sadece glisin bulunabilmektedir.

Glisin, evrimsel olarak bazı proteinlerin belli pozisyonlarında sürekli olarak korunmuştur (örnek olarak, sitokrom c, myoglobin ve hemoglobin). Çünkü glisini daha büyük bir aminoasitle değiştiren mutasyonlar bu proteinlerin yapısını tamamen bozmaktadırlar.

Glisin renksiz, tatlımsı kristal bir katıdır. Proteinler genellikle az sayıda glisin yapıtaşı içermektedir. Üçte biri glisinden oluşan kollajen ise bir istisnadır.

Tarihi

 

İpek fibronlarında bulunan proteinlerin %43,6'sı Glisin'den oluşmaktadır.[1]
Glisin 1820 yılında, Henri Braconnot tarafından jelatinin sülfürik asit içerisinde kaynatılmasıyla keşfedildi.[2]

 

 

Ticari Üretimi ve Kullanımı
Glisin endüstriyel olarak kloroasetik asitin amonyakla reaksiyonundan üretilmektedir:[3]

 

 

ClCH2COOH + 2 NH3 → H2NCH2COOH + NH4Cl
Yılda yaklaşık 15 milyon kg glisin bu şekilde üretilmektedir.[4]

 

Amerika (GEO Specialty Chemicals, Inc.) ve Japonya (Showa Denko firması)'da, glisin Strecker amino asit sentezi yoluyla üretilmektedir.[5]

Glisinin pKA değeri 2.35 ile 9.78 arasında olur. pH 9.78 üstünde ise glisinin büyük bölümü anyonik amin ( H2NCH2CO2-) şeklindedir. pH 2.35 altında, glisin çözeltisi çoğunlukla katyonik karboksilik asit (H3N+CH2CO2H) içerir. Glisinin izoelektrik noktası 6.06 dır.

Glisin çözelti halinde zwitter iyon halinde bulunur. Bu halde iken, Gasteiger yük yöntemi kullanılarak belirlenmiş farklı atomlardaki kısmi yükler şu şekilde verilmiştir: N (+0.2358), H (N atomuna bağlı) (+0.1964), alfa-C (+0.001853), H (alfa-C atomuna bağlı) (+0.08799), karbonil C (+0.085) ve karbonil O (-0.5445).

 

Kimyasal hammadde
Glisin, çeşitli kimyasal ürünlerin sentezinde kullanılan bir ara üründür. Glifosat etkili maddeli herbisit üretiminde kullanılır. Glifosat, yabancı otları öldürmeye yarayan seçici olmayan sistemik bir herbisittir. Özellikle tohumlu ve çok yıllık ya da kesilmiş ağaçların toprak altında kalan bölümünü kurutmak için bir orman herbisiti olarak kullanılır. Glifosat, ilk olarak Roundup ticari markası altında Monsanto tarafından satıldı ise de artık patent altında olmadığı için birçok firma tarafından piyasaya sunulmaktadır.

 

 

Fizyolojik fonksiyonları
Glisin, merkezi sinir sisteminde, özellikle omurilik, beyin kökü ve retinada olmak uzere inhibitör (sinir iletişimini engelleyici) bir nörotransmiterdir. Nöronlar üzerindeki glisin reseptörleri glisin tarafından uyarıldığında, nöronun içine iyonotropik reseptörler vasıtasıyla Cl- akışı gerçeklesir. Negatif yüklü iyonların nöron içerisinde birikmesi inhibitör postsinaptik potansiyele neden olur. Nöronun uyarılması daha da zorlaşır. Strychnine iyonotropik glisin reseptörleri üzerinde etkili bir antagonisttir. Glisin insan vücudundaki hücreler tarafından fizyolojik ihtiyaçları karşılayacak miktarda sentezlenebildiği için beslenme yoluyla dışarıdan alımı şart değildir.

 

 

Yer aldığı metabolik olaylar
Safra tuzu sentezi
Pürin sentezi
Hippurat sentezi(Sodyum benzoat ile oluşturduğu yapı)
Sarkozin(N-metil glisin) sentezi
Kreatin sentezi
Porfirin sentezi
Glutatyon sentezi
Metabolik bozuklukları
Glisinüri Plazma glisin düzeyi normal,glisinin yanı sıra prolin ve hidroksiprolinin renal tübüler geri emilimi bozuktur.

 

Primer hiperoksalüri Glisinin glioksalata oksidasyonunda artış bulunur ve glioksalat katabolizması bozulduğundan oksalata oksidasyon artar.Oksalat taşı,tekrarlayıcı idrar yolu enfeksiyonları,renal yetersizlik,hipertansiyon gözlenir.

Hiperglisinemi Glisin yıkımında yer alan glisin yarılma enzim yapılarındaki hataya bağlı olarak görülen kalıtsal bir hastalıktır.Zeka geriliği ve nöbetler ile tanınır.Propiyonik asidemili hastalarda gözlenir.Non-ketotik hiperglisinemi de denir.Tedavide sodyum benzoat kullanılır.

Kimi zaman amino asitlerin en basiti olarak söz edilmesine rağmen, glisin (glycine) dikkate değer faydalar göstermiştir. Düşük hipofiz işlevinin tedavisine yardımcı olduğu bulun­muştur ve ayrıca vücuda tamamlayıcı kreatin tedarik etti­ğinden (kas işlevi için temel) ilerleyen adale erimesinin te­davisinde etkili olduğu bulunmuştur. Şaşırtıcı bir şekilde bu amino asitten fazla miktarda almak bitkinliğe yol açar, uy­gun miktarlarda alım ise daha fazla enerji üretir.

Glisin merkezi sinir sisteminin işlevi için gereklidir, manik depresyon ve hiperaktivitenin tedavisinde kullanılır ve sara nöbetlerini önlemeye yardımcı olabilir.

Besinler üzerinde uzman olan birçok doktor hipoglise­minin tedavisinde şu anda glisin kullanmaktadır. (Glisin; glikojeni-daha sonra kana glükoz olarak salman-hareke­te geçiren glukagonun saliminim stimüle eder.)

Ek olarak midevi hiperasitliğin (birçok ınidevi asit önle­yici ilaca dahil edilmiştir) tedavisinde etkindir. ...

 

yan grup olarak hidrojen bulunduran ve bundan ötürü optik merkezi olmadığından, d ve l izomeri olmayan en küçük amino asit. optik olarak aktif değildir. vücutta serin amino asidinden sentezi gerçekleşir. bu reaksiyon tam ters yönde de gerçekleşebilir.
zehirsizleştirme reaksiyonlarına ,proteinlerin yapısına,diğer amino asitlerin sentezine katılır.

 

L-GLİSİN & L-BETAİN 100 GRAM

 

 

L-Glycine ve L-Glutamik Asit ve L-Betain, çok etkili selat ajanları olduğu bilinmektedir. Bunun yanisira L-Betain bitkide rahatlama hissi verip sakinlestirici bir ozelligi vardir. Yogun stress altinda kalmis bitkilerde ic dengeyi saglamasinda yardimci olur. L-Betain yalniz uygulanmasindan ziyade L-Glycine ile birlikte uygulanmasi uygundur.

 

L-Glycine gerekli besin elementlerinin bitki tarafindan alimini hizlandirir.

 

Maya Nedir?

 

Aslında bira mayası; bir tip tek hücreli mantarın (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) hücrelerinin ezilip toz haline getirilmiş ve kurutulmuş halidir. B-kompleks vitaminler veproteinler (tüm esansiyel amino asitler dahil- vücutta üretilemeyen ve dışarıdan alınması zorunlu amino-asitler) ve mineraller açısından zengin bir kaynaktır.

 

L-Form Aminoasitlerin kaynagi Ekmek Maya'sidir. Ozel sartlarda Maya uretiminden arta kalan yan urunlerde saflastirma ve ayristirma ve yakalama ajnalari ile saf amino asitler uretilmektedir.

 

Genel olarak her bir L-Form aminoasitin bitkide bir donguyu tetiklemesi durumu soz konusudur. Cok dusuk miktarlarda kullanilan bu ETKEN AKTIFLER bunyesinde bir kod gizler ve bu kodu alan bitki ne yapmasi gerektigini ogrenir. Ikinci asama olarak yapilan uygulamada bitki bu kod ile aktive ettigi donguye besin saglamaya baslar. Ornegin; ciceklenme kodu gonderen bir L-FORM aminoasit sonrasi yapilan NPK veya Iz Element uygulamasinda bitki bu besin elementlerininden ciceklenmede ihtiyac olacak sekilde emilim yapip bitki dongulerine gonderir. Hedef sonuc amacli bir calismadir ve bitki enerjisinin tumunu bu dongulere kanalize eder. Kisa sure sonra bitkinin ciceklenmesinde bir artis fark edilir.

 

Normalde satilan toz aminoasitlerde butun formlar karma seklinde mevcutken L-FORM aminoasitlerde ise 99% saflik soz konusudur.

 

Genel olarak L-FORM aminoasitlerin internet ortamindaki tanimi soyledir ;

 

PROTEİN SENTEZİ

Sadece L-Amino Asitler bitkiler tarafından asimile edilir.

 

STRES DİRENÇ

Yüksek sıcaklık, düsük nem, Don, Böcek zararı, Dolu zararı, Sel gibi, ürün kalitesini ve miktarını azaltan, bitki metabolizmasını üzerinde olumsuz bir etkiye sahip stres koşullarına direnç sağlar. Stres kosulları oluşmadan önce, oluşurken ve sonrasında uygulanması, ile doldurulan stres fizyolojisinde ki sorunlar önlenir ve iyilestirme etkisi vardır .

 

FOTOSENTEZ ETKİSİ

Bitkiler fotosentez yoluyla karbonhidrat sentezler, Düsük fotosentez hızı bitkinin ölümüne yol açan yavas bir büyüme anlamına gelir, klorofil, ışık enerjisi emiliminden sorumlu bir moleküldür. Glisin ve Glutamik Asit, bitkisel doku ve klorofil sentezi olusumu sürecinde temel metabolitlerdir. Bu amino asitler, bitki fotosentezi için yüksek derecede önemli olan klorofil konsantrasyonunu artırmak için yardımcı olur. Bu sayede bitkiler yemyeşil hale getirir.

 

STOMALARA ETKİSİ

Stomalar bitki dengesi, makro ve mikro besin emilimi ve gaz emilimini kontrol eden hücresel yapılardır. Stomaların açılması, dış etkenler (soğuk, nem, sıcaklık ve tuz konsantrasyonu) ve iç faktörler (amino asitler konsantrasyonu, abcisic asit vb) tarafından kontrol edilir. Işık ve nem oranı düşük ve sıcaklık ve tuz konsantrasyonu yüksek oldugunda stomalar küçülür (makro ve mikro besinlerin emilimi düser) fotosentez, terleme ve solunum artar (Karbonhidrat yıkımı) kapalı olduğunda stomalar kapalıdır. Bu durumda bitkinin metabolik dengesi olumsuz etkilenir. L-glutamik asit "bekçi hücreleri" sitoplazmaya osmotik ajan olarak davranır. Böylece stomaların açılımını teşvik eder.

 

ŞELAT ETKİSİ

Amino asitler Mikrobesinler için mükemmel bir selat maddesidir. Hücre zarı geçirgenliğine olan etkisi nedeniyle.

 

L-Glycine ve L-Glutamik Asit, çok etkili selat ajanları olduğu bilinmektedir.

 

AMINO ASITLER

Amino Asitler ve fitotormonlar (bitki hormonları)

 

Amino Asitler bitkisel hormonları ve büyüme düzenleyicileri uyaran ve aktive eden aktivatörlerdir.

 

L - Methionine etilen ve büyüme faktörleri uyarıcısıdır

 

L-triptofan, Oksin sentezi için uyarıcıdır.

 

L-Arginin, çiçek ve meyve ile ilgili hormonların sentezini tetikler.

 

TOZLANMA VE MEYVE OLUSUMU

Tozlanma, döllenme ve meyve oluşumu için polen tozlarının disilik organına (pistil)polen taşınmasıdır. Döllenme ve meyve olusumu ancak bu şekilde mümkündür.

 

L-Proline Polen dogurganlığa yardımcı olur.

 

L-Lizin, L-Methionine, L-Glutamik Asit, tozlama için esansiyel amino asitlerdir.

 

Bu amino asitler kullanıldığında , polen çimlenmesi ve polen tüpü uzunlugu artar.

 

TOPRAK BİTKİ DENGE

Tarım topraklarında mikrobiyal flora dengesi, iyi bir organik madde mineralizasyonu ve aynı zamanda iyi bir toprak yapısı içinde köklerin gelişmesi ve dağılması

 

L-metiyonin, mikrobiyal floranın, hücre duvarlarını stabilize ederek büyümeyi aktive eder.

 

GENEL

L-Glutamik Asit ve L-Aspartik Asit, transaminasyon amino asitlerin geri kalanı oluşturmaktadır.

 

L-Proline & Hidroksiproline su dengesizliği, olumsuz iklim koşullarına karşı direnci arttırmak, hücre duvarlarının güçlendirilmesi gibi etkileri vardır.

 

L-Alanin, L-Valin & L-Lösin meyve kalitesini arttırır.

 

L-Histidin meyvelerin olgunlaşmasına yardımcı olur.

 

Glisin Nedir?
Glisin (aminoetanoik asit), 20 proteojenik amino asitten bir tanesidir. Çeşitli metabolik işlemler için gereken protein bileşenlerinin sentezlenmesine yardımcı olur. Aynı zamanda beyindeki sinirsel iletişime de katkıda bulunarak, uyku kalitesini arttırır ve yorgunluğu en düşük seviyeye indirerek enerjisizliği ortadan kaldırır.

 

Devamını oku..

 

Glisin Ne İşe Yarar
Glisin temel olmayan bir amino asit çeşididir. Vücut bu maddeyi bir başka amino asit olan serinden sentezleyebilir. Bir amino asit olarak, glisin diğer temel olmayan amino asitlerin aminasyon veya transaminasyon yolu ile sentezi için önemli bir azot kaynağıdır. Bu amino asit sayısız metabolik süreçte enzimler gibi hayati önem taşıyan protein yapılarının oluşturulmasına katkıda bulunur.

 

Glisin, kendi özel sinyal sistemine sahip olmasının ve talamus, hipokampüs ve beyincik gibi önemli beyin yapılarına etki etmesinin yanı sıra nöromodülatör ve nörotransmiter aktiviteler de sergiler. Glisin hem baskılayıcı hem de uyarıcı roller üstlenebilirken, sinir sinyallerinin iletiminde önemli bir yere sahiptir. Bu şekilde bilişsel esnekliğe ve hafıza ile ilgili yapıların düzgün bir şekilde oluşmasına katkıda bulunur. Beyindeki nöral iletişime katkı sağlamanın yanında, glisin aynı zamanda uyku kalitesini arttırır, enerjisizliği engeller ve yorgunluğu en aza indirir.

Kendini diğer iki amino asit olan metionin ve argninin ile eşleştiren gilisin transmetilasyon yolu ile kreatini meydana getirir. Kreatin önemli bir enerji kaynağıdır ve kas kasılmaları ile gelişimini destekleyici özelliklere sahiptir. Glisin kreatin sentezinde görev aldığı için, bu maddeyi tamamlayıcı olarak kullanmak kas bozunumunu, yorgunluğunu ve kas kütlesi kaybını engellemek açısından önemlidir. Bir tamamlayıcı madde olarak glisin sporcuların kas kütlesini korumasını ve geliştirmesini sağlarken daha iyi bir spor performansına sahip olmalarına yardımcı olur.

 

Dikkat - Olası Yan Etkiler
Bu tamamlayıcı maddenin hamilelik ve emzirme dönemlerinde kullanımının güvenli olup olmadığı ile ilgili yeterli bilgi yoktur. Önlem olarak bu durumlarda kullanılması önerilmez.
Besinsel tamamlayıcı maddeler, çeşit içeren, dengeli bir beslenmeye ve sağlıklı bir yaşam tarzına alternatif olarak kullanılmamalıdır.
Hassas bünyelerde karın kasılmaları, mide bulantısı ve ishal görülebilir.

 

 

Glisin Faydaları Nedir?
13 Nisan 2019 By beslenmedestegi 1 Comment

 

Vücut glisin üretir, protein yönünden zengin besinlerde de bulunur ve ayrıca takviye olarak da kullanılır. Glisin takviye olarak, uykuyu destekleme, belleği güçlendirme ve insülin duyarlılığını arttırmak için kullanılır. Ayrıca yaraları ve cilt ülserlerini iyileştirmek amacıyla topikal olarak da kullanılır.

 

Glisin Görevleri
Bir amino asit ve bir nörotransmiter olan Glisin (2-Aminoasetik Asit) uykuyu arttırır ve tüm vücut sağlığı için önem taşır. Glisin diğer amino asitlerin, glutatyon, kreatin, heme, RNA / DNA'nın sentezi için oldukça önemlidir. Vücudun glutation, kreatin ve kollajen gibi bileşikler oluşturmak için glisine ihtiyacı vardır. Uygun hücresel fonksiyon ve formasyon için gerekli olan genetik bir materyal olan normal DNA ve RNA ipliklerinin oluşturulmasına yardımcı olmak için kullanılır. Cildi ve bağ dokularını sağlam ve esnek tutmaktan sorumlu olan bir kolajenin yaklaşık üçte biri Glisin'den oluşur. Diğer bir deyişle, bu amino asit olmadan vücut hasarlı dokuları onaramaz.

 

 

Glisin Faydaları
Sağlıklı Uyku İçin Önemli
Karaciğer Hasarını Azaltabilir
Sindirim Sistemini Destekler
Anti-enflamatuar Etki Gösterir
Eklem Sağlığını Korur
Glutatyon Sentezini Geliştirir

 

 

Sağlıklı Uyku İçin Önemli
Glisinin beyin üzerinde sakinleştirici etki sağlar ve çekirdek vücut sıcaklığınızı düşürerek uykuya dalmaya ve uyumaya yardım edebilir. glycine improves the quality of sleep

 

"Sleep and Biological Rhythms" adlı dergide 2007 yılında yayınlanan bir çalışmaya göre, glisin takviyesi tatmin edici olmayan uykusu olan kişilerde hem öznel hem de objektif uyku kalitesi ölçümlerini geliştirmiştir. Sürekli olarak tatminsiz uyku yaşayan katılımcılar yatmadan önce 3 g glisin almışlar ve Glisinin subjektif uyku kalitesini ve uyku etkinliğini arttırdığı tesbit edilmiştir. kaynak

Glisin serotonin düzeylerini yükseltir. Uyku hormonu melatonin yapmak için serotonin gerekir. Araştırmalar oral glisinin serotonini artırdığını, uyku kalitesini iyileştirdiğini ve uykusuzluk semptomlarını azalttığını göstermektedir. kaynak

 

Karaciğer Hasarını Azaltabilir
Glisin alkolün karaciğere verdiği olumsuz etkilerini azaltabilir. Bir hayvan deneyi alkolle indüklenen karaciğer hasarını hafifleterek, etanolün midede ilk geçiş metabolizmasını aktive ederek karaciğere ulaşmasını engellediğini göstermiştir. kaynak

 

Alkol kaynaklı karaciğer hasarı olan hayvan deneyinde yapılan diğer bir çalışmada, karaciğer hücre sağlığı, kontrol grubuna göre 2 hafta süresince glisin içeren bir diyetle beslenen grupta % 30 daha hızlı bir şekilde başlangıç düzeylerine geri döndü. Bu bulgular, glisin içeren bir diyetin etanolün neden olduğu karaciğer hasarından iyileşme sürecini hızlandırdığını göstermektedir. Glycine accelerates recovery from alcohol-induced liver injury

Yine hayvan temelli bir çalışmada, glisin, karaciğer hasarı olan ve bir toksin enjekte edilen (Escherichia coli lipopolisakkarit- intravenöz LPS enjeksiyonu) farelerde % 83 sağkalım oranı varken, glisinle beslenmeyen grupta % 0 sağkalım oranı görüldü. Kontrol grubundaki farelerin %50si, intravenöz LPS enjeksiyonundan (10 mg / kg) sonra 24 saat içinde öldü, ama glisinle beslenenlerde mortaliteyi tamamen önledi. kaynak

Ancak glisinin karaciğer hasarı üzerindeki etkisiyle ilgili çalışmalar hayvanlarla sınırlıdır ve insanlar üzerindeki etkileri henüz bilinmemektedir.

 

 

Sindirim Sistemini Destekler
Glisin besinlerdeki yağ asitlerinin parçalanmasında rol oynar ve sindirim sisteminde sağlıklı asit seviyelerinin korunmasına yardımcı olur. 2006'da "Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences"de bildirilen araştırmaya göre glisin sindirim sistemindeki asit baz oranını dengeleme etkisinden dolayı antasitlerde yaygın bir bileşendir.

 

 

Anti-enflamatuar Etki Gösterir
Son zamanlarda glisin üzerine yapılan araştırmalar anti-enflamatuar, immünomodülatör ve sitoprotektif etkilerini göstermiştir. Birden çok koruyucu etkisi bu amino asiti iltihaplı hastalıklar için potansiyel bir tedavi stratejisi haline getirir. L-Glycine: a novel antiinflammatory agent

 

 

 

Eklem Sağlığını Korur
Kemik suyundaki, diğer amino asitlerle beraber (özellikle prolin), glisin, eklemlerin, tendonların ve bağların büyümesini ve fonksiyonunu destekleyen kollajen oluşumunda rol oynar. Kollajenin yaklaşık olarak üçte biri glisinden oluşur. Kollajen eklemleri esnek tutan ve şoka dayanabilen bağ dokusu oluşturmak için önemlidir. Bu yüzden kollajen hidrolizat, osteoartrit gibi eklem sorunlarının tedavisinde kullanılır. kaynak

 

Glisinle birlikte yeşil çay diyetinin tendinit sonrası tendonun iyileşme sürecine yardımcı olan etkilere sahip olduğu görülmektedir. Green tea and glycine

 

Glutatyon Sentezini Geliştirir
Glutatyon vücuttaki her hücrede bulunan önemli bir antioksidandır. Vücuttaki glutatyon miktarları, zayıf beslenme, çevresel toksinler ve stres dahil olmak üzere çeşitli nedenlerle düşebilir. Ayrıca glutatyon seviyeleri yaşla birlikte azalır. Glisin vücutta önemli bir antioksidan olan glutation'ı üretmek için kullanılan üç amino asitten biridir. (sistein, glutamik asit ve glisin). Glisin olmadan, glutation sentezi gerçekleşemez.

 

Yaşlı insanlarda glutatyon eksikliği sentezde azalma sebebiyle meydana gelir. 2011'de "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition"da bildirilen bir çalışmaya göre diyet takviyesi glisin ve sistein, glutatyon sentezini ve konsantrasyonlarını tamamen geri yükler ve oksidatif stres ve oksidan zararlarını azaltır. kaynak

 

Günlük Doz
Çalışmalarda yaklaşık 3-5 gr dozlar kullanılmıştır. Glisin, kapsül ya da toz şeklinde takviye olarak kullanılır. Toz formu suda kolayca çözünür ve tatlı bir tada sahiptir. (Glisin adı Yunancadan "tatlı" kelimesinden türemiştir). Şizofreni tedavisinde kullanılan Klozapin ile glisinin birlikte alınması, klozapinin etkinliğini azaltabilir. Bu nedenle Klozapin alanların glisin kullanmamaları önerilir.

 

 

 


LA GLYCİNE

 

Glycine (acide aminé)

 

Page d'aide sur l'homonymie Pour les articles homonymes, voir Glycine, gly, GGU, GGC et GGA.
Glycine

 

 

La glycine (à gauche) et son zwitterion (à droite). Glycine-3D-balls.png Glycine-from-xtal-2008-3D-balls.png
Modèle 3D de la glycine et de son zwitterion.
Identification
Nom UICPA acide aminoacétique
Synonymes 
G, Gly,
acide 2-aminoéthanoïque

 

 

No CAS 56-40-6
No ECHA 100.000.248
No CE 200-272-2
Code ATC B05CX03
No E E640
FEMA 3287
SMILES 
[Afficher]
InChI 
[Afficher]
Propriétés chimiques
Formule brute C2H5NO2 [Isomères]
Masse molaire1 75,0666 ± 0,0028 g/mol
C 32 %, H 6,71 %, N 18,66 %, O 42,63 %,
pKa 2,4[réf. souhaitée]
9,7[réf. souhaitée]
Propriétés physiques
T° fusion 232 à 236 °C[réf. souhaitée]
Solubilité 225 g·L-1 dans l'eau[réf. souhaitée],
soluble dans l'éthanol
Masse volumique 1,607 g·cm-3[réf. souhaitée]
Propriétés biochimiques
Codons GGU, GGC, GGA, GGG
pH isoélectrique 5,972
Acide aminé essentiel Non
Occurrence chez les vertébrés 7,4 %3
Propriétés optiques
Pouvoir rotatoire 0°
Précautions
SIMDUT4

 

 

Produit non contrôlé
[+]
Unités du SI et CNTP, sauf indication contraire.
modifier Consultez la documentation du modèle
La glycine (abréviations UICPA-UIBBM : Gly et G) est un acide α-aminé et l'un des vingt-deux acides aminés protéinogènes. Elle est encodée sur les ARN messagers par les codons GGU, GGC, GGA et GGG. C'est le plus simple des acides α-aminés, et elle ne possède aucun atome de carbone asymétrique. Son rayon de van der Waals est égal à 48 Å.

 

Jadis appelée glycocolle ou acide aminoacétique, la glycine possède un goût sucré et peut être utilisée pour améliorer le goût d'édulcorants ou comme exhausteur de goût (E640).

 


Sommaire
1 Fonctions biologiques
2 Catabolisme
3 Présence dans l'espace
4 Analogue structurel
5 Notes et références
6 Liens externes
7 Articles connexes
Fonctions biologiques
La molécule de glycine joue un rôle de neurotransmetteur inhibiteur au niveau de la moelle épinière et de modulateur allostérique positif des récepteurs NMDA au glutamate dans l'ensemble du système nerveux central.
Ce n'est pas une molécule chirale (c'est une exception pour les acides aminés).
La glycine est un précurseur des porphyrines, mais aussi de la créatine (dans le foie), de l'acide urique (forme d'excrétion de l'ammoniac chez les oiseaux), du glutathion (composé qui participe à la réduction des radicaux libres), de l'acétylcholine (neurotransmetteur).
La synthèse du collagène nécessite de la glycine.
Elle entre dans la composition des acides biliaires primaires : elle se conjugue aux sels biliaires, les rendant plus solubles.
Ajoutée au succinyl-CoA, elle forme l'hème, de l'hémoglobine par exemple.
Elle s'interconvertit avec la sérine et la thréonine, et constitue la molécule finale de la dégradation de la choline :
sérine + tétrahydrofolate {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }\rightleftharpoons 5,10-méthylènetétrahydrofolate + glycine + H2O5.
Catabolisme
La glycine déshydrogénase catalyse la réaction suivante, qui est réversible :

 

 

glycine + tétrahydrofolate + NAD+ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }\rightleftharpoons CO2 + 5,10-méthylènetétrahydrofolate + NADH + H+ + NH4+.
Présence dans l'espace
De la glycine avait été trouvée dans de nombreuses météorites. Et depuis 2004, elle a été identifiée dans la traînée de comètes : d'abord par la sonde américaine Stardust dans le panache de la comète Wild 26, puis dans la queue de la comète 67P/Tchourioumov-Guérassimenko par l'instrument ROSINA (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis) installé sur la sonde Rosetta7,6.

 

Ceci conforte l'hypothèse des exobiologistes d'une introduction d'acides aminés d'origine non terrestre dans l'atmosphère primitive de la Terre6,8. La glycine n'étant pas volatile, sa présence dans la queue de comètes laisse penser qu'elle serait présente en plus grande quantité dans la glace cométaire. Cette découverte renforce l'hypothèse selon laquelle la vie pourrait s'être formée sur Terre grâce à l'apport de molécules d'origine extraterrestre dans la « soupe prébiotique », d'autant que les capteurs de la sonde Rosetta ont aussi détecté du phosphore, élément constitutif de l'ATP, moteur énergétique cellulaire essentiel pour le vivant sur Terre6.

 

Analogue structurel
Un analogue structurel de la glycine est le glyphosate, molécule utilisé comme matière active de la plupart des pesticides désherbants totaux foliaires utilisés dans le monde.

 

La glycine est une plante grimpante et ligneuse, une classique des jardins à la floraison spectaculaire : des grappes de fleurs de plus de 50 cm de long. Elle décore avec une touche de romantisme pergolas, murs ou grillages. On peut aussi la conduire sur tige pour en faire un sujet isolé au milieu d'une pelouse.

 

Murs et arches décorés de longues grappes
La glycine décore de sa cascade de fleurs un mur, une arche, une tonnelle ou encore une pergola. Attention tout de même à la qualité du support, ses tiges ont la force de tordre les grilles les plus solides ou de desceller des colonnes trop frêles.
On peut aussi en faire un petit arbre à tige en la faisant pousser le long d'un support durant les premières années et en la taillant de manière appropriée.
La glycine aime les situations ensoleillées et chaudes, à l'abri des vents forts et frais qui peuvent endommager ses boutons floraux à la sortie de l'hiver. Contre un mur orienté à l'ouest, elle profitera du soleil chaud de l'après-midi et de la chaleur emmagasinée. Rustique sous nos climats, la glycine supporte des températures négatives allant jusqu'à -20°C.

 

Des composés qui pouvaient être considérés comme des précurseurs de la glycine ont été étudiés de la façon suivante: le composé en question, marqué isotopiquement, était administré en même temps que du benzoate de sodium et la quantité excrétée d'acide hippurique marqué était déterminée. La DL-thréonine, la DL-allothréonine et l'acide glycolique donnérent des quantités considérables de tandisque l'acide lactique, le fructose et la sérine (carbone-β) ne donnérent que des traces de glycine.

La façon dont la glycine de l'acide hippurique était marquée aprés injection de glycine 14C-15N montra que l'acide aminé était tel dans l'animal. Un précurseur de la glycine doit donc fournir à l'organisme animal la molécule de glycine entière; les acides animès sèrine et thrèronine et la glycine de diète sont les seuls mètabolites naturels connus qui puissent à cette condition.

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