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PEG 600

PEG 600

SYNONYMS: Polyglycol; Poliglikol; polyglikol; poliglikol; polyglycol; poli glikol; poly glicol; poly glycol; POLYGLYCOL; POLI GLIKOL; POLİ GLİKOL; POLY GLYCOL; POLIGLIKOL; POLİGLİKOL; POLİGILİKOL; POLİ GILİKOL; poligılikol; Polyethylene glycol 600; polyethylene glycol 600; POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 600; POLİ ETİLEN GLİKOL 600; POLY ETHYLENE GLYCOL; POLY ETHYLENE GLYCOL 600; POLI ETILEN GLIKOL; Polyethylene oxide; Polyoxy ethylene; PEG 600; PEG; PEO; POE; Ethylene oxide polymer; Poly(oxyethylene) glycol; PEG; Carbowax; Polyglycol; Polyethylene glycol 200, 300, 400, 600,1000,1450, 3350, 4000, 6000, 8000 and 20000 ; PEG; Macrogol; Polyoxyethlene; Aquaffin; Nycoline; alpha-hydro-omega-hydroxypoly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl); polyethylene glycols; Poly Ethylene Oxide; Polyoxyethylene; Polyglycol; 1,2-ethanediol Ehoxylated; Polyoxyethylene ether; Polyoxyethylene; Poly(ethylene glycol); PEG; Carbowax®; Polyglycol; Polyethylene glycol 200, 300, 400, 600,1000,1450, 3350, 4000, 6000, 8000 and 20000;ETHYLENE GLYCOL;1,2-ethanediol;Ethane-1,2-diol;107-21-1;glycol;monoethylene glycol; 1,2-Dihydroxyethane; 2-hydroxyethanol; Glycol alcohol;Ethylene alcohol;polyethylene glycol;Macrogol; Fridex; Tescol; Ethylene dihydrate; Norkool; Macrogol 400 BPC;Dowtherm SR 1;Carbowax 400;CCRIS 3744; Carbowax 1000; Dowtherm 4000; 1,2-ethylene glycol; Ethylene glycol polymer;HSDB 5012;NCI-C00920;HOCH2CH2OH; Union Carbide XL 54 Type I De-icing Fluid; PEG 3350;EINECS 203-473-3; M.e.g.;Ethylene glycol homopolymer; Polyethylene glycol 1000; Polyethylene Glycol 4000; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 042203; 1,2-Ethanediol homopolymer;FC72KVT52F; AI3-03050; PEG; CHEBI:30742; LYCAIKOWRPUZTN-UHFFFAOYSA-N; PEG 4000; 1, 2-Ethanediol;DuPont Zonyl FSO Fluorinated Surfactants;alpha-Hydro-omega-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene); DSSTox_CID_597; H(OCH2CH2)nOH;DSSTox_RID_75680; DSSTox_GSID_20597; alpha-Hydro-omega-hydroxypoly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl); Glycol, polyethylene; Miralax; Polyethylene oxide;CAS-107-21-1; Polyethylene Glycols; Polyethylene glycol 3350; Athylenglykol; Aquaffin; Badimol; Carbowax; Modopeg; Nosilen; Nycoline;ehtylene glycol;ethylen glycol;ethylene-glycol;etylene glycol; Carbowax Sentry;Pluracol E; Polyaethylenglykol; Aquacide III; Ilexan E;Bradsyn PEG;ethylene alcohol;Merpol OJ; Polyaethylenglykole; MEG 100; Alkox SR; Oxide Wax AN; Octaethylene glycol; 5117-19-1; 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-Heptaoxatricosane-1,23-diol; Octaethyleneglycol; Polyethylene Glycol 400; HO-PEG8-OH; GLZWNFNQMJAZGY-UHFFFAOYSA-N; PE8; 2-[2-[2-[2-[2-[2-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]ethanol; Octanethyl glycol;2-(2-{2-[2-(2-{2-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}ethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}ethoxy )ethan-1-ol;C16H34O9; EINECS 225-856-4; 4gs9;PED-diol (n=8); HO-dPEG8-OH;AC1L2VZM; ACMC-1AL8Y; SCHEMBL45160; KSC270I6P; UNII-B697894SGQ; DTXSID3058618; CHEBI:44794;CTK1H0467;KS-00000GUW; MolPort-003-926-911;B697894SGQ; AC1Q5925;ZINC5178830; ANW-31203; SBB061523; AKOS015839805; ACN-050823; MCULE-3002372725; RL03883; AJ-53504; AK112659; AS-19695; BP-21369; CJ-12501; OR322547; SC-43935; AX8146021;DB-051916; KB-234278; LS-191709; TR-018243; CS-0031650; FT-0635546;O0295;ST51047527;Y4953;Octaethylene glycol, >=95% (oligomer purity);117O191; A829142;C-41276; J-511381; I14-16370; 2-[2-[2-[2-[2-[2-[2-(2-hydroxyethyloxy)ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]ethanol




Polyethylene glycol 600 for synthesis. CAS 25322-68-3, pH 5 - 7 (100 g/l, H₂O, 20 °C). Polyethylene glycol 600: Malzeme Güvenlik Bilgi Formu (MSDS) veya SDS, Analiz Sertifikası (COA) ve Kalite Uygunluk Sertifikası (COQ), dosyalar, broşürler ve diğer dokümanlar. SDS CoA Chemical Formula: HO(C₂H₄O)nH Hill Formula: HO(C₂H₄O)nH EC Number: 500-038-2 CAS PEG 600 #: 25322-68-3 807486 View Pricing & Availability OverviewSupporting DocumentationRelated Products & Applications Overview Description Product Information Applications Physicochemical Information Toxicological Information Safety Information according to GHS Storage and Shipping Information Transport Information Specifications Key Spec Table Pricing & Availability Key Spec Table # EC Number Hill Formula Chemical Formula 25322-68-3 500-038-2 HO(C₂H₄O)nH HO(C₂H₄O)nH Pricing & Availability Catalogue Number Availability Packaging Qty/Pack Price Quantity 8074861000 - Contact Customer Service Plastic bottle 1 l Upon Order Completion More Information - Add To Favorites 8074865001 - Contact Customer Service Plastic container 5 l Upon Order Completion More Information - Add To Favorites Add To Cart Description Catalogue Number 807486 PEG 600 Product Information CAS number 25322-68-3 EC number 500-038-2 Hill Formula HO(C₂H₄O)nH Chemical formula HO(C₂H₄O)nH HS Code 3907 20 11 Applications Application Polyethylene glycol 600 for synthesis. CAS 25322-68-3, pH 5 - 7 (100 g/l, H₂O, 20 °C). Physicochemical Information Density 1.13 g/cm3 (20 °C) Flash point 260 °C Ignition temperature >320 °C DIN 51794 Melting Point 17 - 22 °C pH value 5 - 7 (100 g/l, H₂O, 20 °C) Vapor pressure <0.1 hPa (20 °C) Toxicological Information LD 50 oral LD50 Rat 28000 mg/kg LD 50 dermal LD50 Rabbit > 20000 mg/kg Safety Information according to GHS RTECS TQ3800000 Storage class 10 Combustible liquids not in Storage Class 3 PEG 600 WGK WGK 1 slightly hazardous to water Disposal 3 Relatively unreactive organic reagents should be collected in container A. If halogenated, they should be collected in container B. For solid residues use container C. Storage and Shipping Information Storage Storage temperature: no restrictions. Transport Information Declaration (railroad and road) ADR, RID Kein Gefahrgut Declaration (transport by air) PEG 600 IATA-DGR No Dangerous Good Declaration (transport by sea) IMDG-Code No Dangerous Good Specifications Density (d 20 °C/ 4 °C) 1.126 - 1.128 Hydroxyl value 178 - 197 Average molecular mass 570 - 630 Identity (IR) passes test Due to its specific melting range the product may be solid, liquid, a solidified melt or a supercooled melt. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 600Chemical Name: Poly (ethylene glycol)CAS#: 25322-68-3

The PEGS sold by Acme-Hardesty are Bio-based and not Petro-based. They are made from "bagasse" which is the fibrous waste that remains after sugar cane stalks are crushed to extract their juice. This renewable product is ideal for customers who are committed, as we are, to advancing the sustainability profile of their products. USES & APPLICATIONS CASE: Humectant in Inks and Adhesives; Solvent, Dye Carrier in Inks; Modifier and Binder in Latex Paint; Dispersant in Water Based CoatingsRenewable Chemistries: Our PEGS are Bio-Based, PEG 600 Made from Sugar Cane WasteLubricants and Greases: Additive in Synthetic Lubricants, Cutting Oil and Hydraulic FluidsMetal Working Fluids: Acts as a Solvent in Soldering FluxPersonal Care: Used as a Base for Skin Creams and Lotions Acting as a Solvent, Humectant and Lubricant; Solubilizer in Creams, Lotions and Bath GelsPlastics: Mold Release Agent and External LubricantRubber: Mold Release Agent and Lubricant in Production of Natural and Synthetic RubberSoaps and Detergents: Viscosity Modifier and SolventSurfactants and Esters: PEG Esters are used as SurfactantsTextiles: Lubricant, Softener, Dye Carrier, Dispersant and Anti-Static Agent GRADES AND FORMS AVAILABLE 600 PACKAGING PEG 600 Drums and Isotanks SHELF LIFE One Year from Date of Manufacture when stored according to MSDS recommendations INCI NAME PEG-12 LOOKING FOR LARGER QUANTITIES?Get a Quote > < 1 > Sales Specifications of PEG 600 Parameters Specifications Test Methods INCI Name PEG-12 - Appearance @ 25°C Clear, Colorless Liquid - Color APHA 25 max - pH (5% aqueous solution) @ 25°C 4.5 - 7.5 - Water Content, % 0.20 max - Hydroxyl Value, mgKOH/gm 180 - 195 - Viscosity @ 99°C, cSt 10.8 - 11.0 - Solubility in Water Complete - Density, g/cm3 @ 20°C Report - 1,4 Dioxane, ppm 10 max - Average Molecular Weight 570 - 630 - CARBOWAXTM Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 600 Product CAS # 25322-68-3 Description CHEMICAL FAMILY - Oxyalkylene Polymer CFTA NOMENCLATURE - PEG-12 Typical Physical Properties - CARBOWAXTM PEG 600¹ Range of Avg. Molecular Weight 570 - 630 Range of Average Hydroxyl Number, mg KOH/g 178 - 197 Density, g/cm3 @ 20°C 1.1258 Melting or Freezing Range, C 15 - 25 PEG 600 Solubility in Water at 20°C, % by wt Complete Viscosity at 100°C, cSt 10.8 Average Number of Repeating Oxyethylene Units 13.2 Avg. Liquid Specific Heat, cal/g/°C 0.51 Heat of Fusion, Cal/g 35 pH at 25°C, 5% Aqueous Solution 4.5 - 7.5 PEG 600 Flash Point, Pensky Martens Closed Cup, C 238 Flash Point, Cleveland Open Cup, °C 274 Physical Form Liquid Weight per gallon, lbs/gal @ 20°C 9.39 1. Typical properties, not to be construed as specifications Typical Known Applications for Polyethylene Glycols*
 Adhesives
 Ceramic Glaze
 Chemical Intermediates
 Food Packaging
 Inks
 Lubricants
 Mold Release Agent
 Plasticizer
 Wood Treatment
Refer to the CARBOWAXTM Polyethylene Glycols and Methoxypolyethylene Glycols brochure (Form No. 118-01789-1011) for more specific application information FDA Status CARBOWAXTM Polyethylene Glycols are produced to meet the requirements for use under Food Additive Regulations for indirect use as components of articles ntended for use in contact with food. It is the responsibility of the user of CARBOWAXTM PEGs and MPEGs to read and understand all current applicable FDA and EPA regulations, as well as any other applicable regulations. PEG 600 Product Stewardship Dow encourages its customers and potential users to review their applications from the standpoint of human health and environmental aspects. To help ensure that Dow products are not used in ways for which they are not intended or tested, Dow personnel will assist customers in dealing with environmental and product safety considerations. Dow literature, including material Safety Data Sheets, For further information, call... In the United States and Canada: 1-800-447-4369 • FAX: 1-989-832-1465 In Europe: +800 3 694 6367 • FAX: +31 11567 4704 In the Asia Pacific: +800 7776 7776 • FAX: +800 7779 7779 In Latin America: +55 11 5188 9000 • FAX: +55 11 5184 8790 www.carbowax.com NOTICE: PEG 600 No freedom from any patent owned by Seller or others is to be inferred. Because use conditions and applicable laws may differ from one location to another and may change with time, Customer is responsible for determining whether products and the information in this document are appropriate for Customer's use and for ensuring that Customer's workplace and disposal practices are in compliance with applicable laws and other governmental enactments. Seller assumes no obligation or liability for the information in this document. NO WARRANTIES ARE GIVEN; ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE EXPRESSLY EXCLUDED. Published December 2011 K Technical Data Sheet ®TMTrademark of The Dow Chemical Company ("Dow") or an affiliated company of Dow Form 118-01800-0218 Page 1 of 1 CARBOWAXTM Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 600 Product CAS # 25322-68-3 Description Polyethylene Glycol Applications PEG 600 Adhesives Antistatic Agent and Humectant Chemical Intermediates Inks Lubricants Mold Release Agent Plasticizer Wood Treatment Typical Physical Properties(1) Value Physical Form Liquid to Semisolid Average Number of Repeating Oxyethylene Units 13.2 Range of Average Molecular Weight 570 - 630 Range of Average Hydroxyl Number, mg KOH/g 178 - 197 Density, g/cm3 at 20°C 1.126 Melting or Freezing Range, °C 15 - 25 Solubility in Water at 20°C, % by weight Complete Viscosity at 100°C, cSt 10.8 Heat of Fusion, Cal/g 35 (1) Typical properties, not to be construed as specifications FDA Status Product Stewardship CARBOWAXTM Polyethylene Glycols PEG 600 are produced to meet the requirements for use under Food Additive Regulations for indirect use as components of articles intended for use in contact with food. It is the responsibility of the user of CARBOWAXTM PEGs and MPEGs to read and understand all current applicable FDA and EPA regulations, as well as any other applicable regulations. Dow strongly encourages its customers to review both their manufacturing processes and their applications of Dow products from the standpoint of human health and environmental quality to ensure that Dow products are not used in ways for which they are not intended or tested. Dow personnel are available to answer your questions and to provide reasonable technical support. Dow product literature, including safety data sheets, should be consulted prior to use of Dow products. Current safety data sheets are available from Dow. U.S. Toll-Free 800 441 4DOW 989 832 1542 International Europe/Middle East +800 36 94 63 67 Italy +800 783 825 Asia/Pacific +800 77 76 7776 +60 37 958 3392 Latin America +55 115 184-8722 South Africa +800 99 5078 http://www.dow.com/ Notice: No freedom from infringement of any patent owned by Dow or others is to be inferred. Because use conditions and applicable laws may differ from one location to another and may change with time, Customer is responsible for determining whether products and the information in this document are appropriate for the Customer's use and for ensuring that the Customer's workplace and disposal practices are in compliance with applicable laws and other government enactments. The product shown in this literature may not be available for sale and/or available in all geographies where Dow is represented. The claims made may not have been approved for use in all countries. Dow assumes no obligation or liability for the information in this document. PEG 600 References to "Dow" or the "Company" mean the Dow legal entity selling the products to Customer unless otherwise expressly noted. NO WARRANTIES ARE GIVEN; ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE EXPRESSLY EXCLUDED. PEG 600 poly(oxyethylene) {structure-based},poly(ethylene oxide) {source-based} CAS: 25322-68-3 Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine. Other Known Names: polyethylene glycol 600, Carbowax, GoLYTELY, GlycoLax, Fortrans, TriLyte, Colyte, Halflytely, Macrogol, MiraLAX, MoviPrep
Molecular Formula: C2nH4n+2On+1 Applications: laxatives PEG-600 Get Latest Price Usage Commercial Product name PEG-600 Chemical name Poly(ethylene glycol)-600 CAS Number 25322-68-3 Application field Detergent & Household goods production (as soap bars glue, soluble agent in detergent pastes, fixing agent for odors in soaps and detergents, as additive in general cleaners, polishers, air fresheners, automatic dishwashing detergents) Polyethylene glycol From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search Not to be confused with Ethylene glycol or Diethylene glycol. For medical uses of polyethylene glycol, see Macrogol. Polyethylene glycol PEG Structural Formula V1.svg Names IUPAC names poly(oxyethylene) {structure-based}, poly(ethylene oxide) {source-based}[1] Other names Carbowax, GoLYTELY, GlycoLax, Fortrans, TriLyte, Colyte, Halflytely, Macrogol, MiraLAX, MoviPrep Identifiers CAS Number 25322-68-3 ☑ ChEMBL ChEMBL1201478 ☒ ChemSpider none ECHA InfoCard 100.105.546 E number E1521 (additional chemicals) UNII 3WJQ0SDW1A ☒ Properties Chemical formula C2nH4n+2On+1 Molar mass 44.05n + 18.02 g/mol Density 1.125[2] Pharmacology ATC code A06AD15 (WHO) Hazards Flash point 182-287 °C; 360-549 °F; 455-560 K where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa). ☒ verify (what is ☑☒ ?) Infobox references



Polyethylene glycol (PEG;PEG 600 /ˌpɒliˈɛθəlˌiːn ˈɡlaɪˌkɒl, -ˌkɔːl/) is a polyether compound with many applications, from industrial manufacturing to medicine. PEG is also known as polyethylene oxide (PEO) or polyoxyethylene (POE), depending on its molecular weight. The structure of PEG 600 is commonly expressed as H-(O-CH2-CH2)n-OH.

Medical uses
Main article: Macrogol
PEG 600 is the basis of a number of laxatives.[3] Whole bowel irrigation with polyethylene glycol and added electrolytes is used for bowel preparation before surgery or colonoscopy. PEG 600 is also used as an excipient in many pharmaceutical products. When attached to various protein medications, polyethylene glycol allows a slowed clearance of the carried protein from the blood.[4] The possibility that PEG 600 could be used to fuse nerve cells is being explored by researchers studying spinal cord injury.[3] Chemical uses The remains of the 16th century carrack Mary Rose undergoing conservation treatment with PEG 600 in the 1980s Terra cotta warrior, showing traces of original color Because PEG 600 is a hydrophilic molecule, it has been used to passivate microscope glass slides for avoiding non-specific sticking of proteins in single-molecule fluorescence studies.[5] Polyethylene glycol has a low toxicity and is used in a variety of products.[6] The polymer is used as a lubricating coating for various surfaces in aqueous and non-aqueous environments.[7] Since PEG is a flexible, water-soluble polymer, it can be used to create very high osmotic pressures (on the order of tens of atmospheres). It also is unlikely to have specific interactions with biological chemicals. These properties make PEG 600 one of the most useful molecules for applying osmotic pressure in biochemistry and biomembranes experiments, in particular when using the osmotic stress technique. Polyethylene glycol is also commonly used as a polar stationary phase for gas chromatography, as well as a heat transfer fluid in electronic testers. PEG 600 has also been used to preserve objects that have been salvaged from underwater, as was the case with the warship Vasa in Stockholm,[8] and similar cases. It replaces water in wooden objects, making the wood dimensionally stable and preventing warping or shrinking of the wood when it dries.[3] In addition, PEG 600 is used when working with green wood as a stabilizer, and to prevent shrinkage.[9] PEG has been used to preserve the painted colors on Terracotta Warriors unearthed at a UNESCO World Heritage site in China.[10] These painted artifacts were created during the Qin Shi Huang Di dynasty (first emperor of China). Within 15 seconds of the terra-cotta pieces being unearthed during excavations, the lacquer beneath the paint begins to curl after being exposed to the dry Xian air. The paint would subsequently flake off in about four minutes. The German Bavarian State Conservation Office developed a PEG 600 preservative that when immediately applied to unearthed artifacts has aided in preserving the colors painted on the pieces of clay soldiers.[11] PEG 600 is often used (as an internal calibration compound) in mass spectrometry experiments, with its characteristic fragmentation pattern allowing accurate and reproducible tuning. PEG 600 derivatives, such as narrow range ethoxylates, are used as surfactants. PEG 600 is a polyol and can be reacted with an isocyanate to make polyurethane. PEG 600 has been used as the hydrophilic block of amphiphilic block copolymers used to create some polymersomes.[12] Biological uses PEG 600 is commonly used as a crowding agent in in vitro assays to mimic highly crowded cellular conditions.[5] PEG 600 is commonly used as a precipitant for plasmid DNA isolation and protein crystallization. X-ray diffraction of protein crystals can reveal the atomic structure of the proteins. PEG is used to fuse two different types of cells, most often B-cells and myelomas in order to create hybridomas. César Milstein and Georges J. F. Köhler originated this technique, which they used for antibody production, winning a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1984.[3] Polymer segments derived from PEG polyols impart flexibility to polyurethanes for applications such as elastomeric fibers (spandex) and foam cushions. In microbiology, PEG 600 precipitation is used to concentrate viruses. PEG is also used to induce complete fusion (mixing of both inner and outer leaflets) in liposomes reconstituted in vitro. Gene therapy vectors (such as viruses) can be PEG-coated to shield them from inactivation by the immune system and to de-target them from organs where they may build up and have a toxic effect.[13] The size of the PEG polymer has been shown to be important, with larger polymers achieving the best immune protection. PEG is a component of stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALPs) used to package siRNA for use in vivo.[14][15] In blood banking, PEG is used as a potentiator to enhance detection of antigens and antibodies.[3][16] When working with phenol in a laboratory situation, PEG 300 can be used on phenol skin burns to deactivate any residual phenol. In biophysics, polyethylene glycols are the molecules of choice for the functioning ion channels diameter studies, because in aqueous solutions they have a spherical shape and can block ion channel conductance.[17][18]




Commercial uses
PEG 600 is the basis of many skin creams (as cetomacrogol) and personal lubricants (frequently combined with glycerin). PEG 600 is used in a number of toothpastes[3] as a dispersant. In this application, it binds water and helps keep xanthan gum uniformly distributed throughout the toothpaste. PEG 600 is also under investigation for use in body armor, and in tattoos to monitor diabetes.[19][20] In low-molecular-weight formulations (e.g. PEG 400), it is used in Hewlett-Packard designjet printers as an ink solvent and lubricant for the print heads. PEG 600 is also used as an anti-foaming agent in food and drinks[21] - its INS number is 1521[22] or E1521 in the EU.[23] Industrial uses A nitrate ester-plasticized polyethylene glycol (NEPE-75) is used in Trident II submarine-launched ballistic missile solid rocket fuel.[24] Dimethyl ethers of PEG are the key ingredient of Selexol, a solvent used by coal-burning, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants to remove carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from the gas waste stream. PEG 600 has been used as the gate insulator in an electric double-layer transistor to induce superconductivity in an insulator.[25] PEG 600 is also used as a polymer host for solid polymer electrolytes. Although not yet in commercial production, many groups around the globe are engaged in research on solid polymer electrolytes involving PEG 600, with the aim of improving their properties, and in permitting their use in batteries, electro-chromic display systems, and other products in the future. PEG 600 is injected into industrial processes to reduce foaming in separation equipment. PEG 600 is used as a binder in the preparation of technical ceramics.[26] Health effects PEG 600 is generally considered biologically inert and safe. However, studies of clinical safety are generally based on adults, not children. The FDA has been asked to investigate the possible effects of PEG in laxatives for children.[27]


A minority of people are allergic to it. Allergy to PEG is usually discovered after a person has been diagnosed with an allergy to an increasing number of seemingly unrelated products, including processed foods, cosmetics, drugs, and other substances that contain PEG or were manufactured with PEG 600.[28] When PEG is chemically attached to therapeutic molecules (such as protein drugs or nanoparticles), it can sometimes be antigenic, stimulating an anti-PEG antibody response in some patients. This effect has only been shown for a few of the many available PEGylated therapeutics, but it has significant effects on clinical outcomes of affected patients.[29] Other than these few instances where patients have anti-PEG immune responses, it is generally considered to be a safe component of drug formulations. Available forms and nomenclature PEG, PEO, and POE refer to an oligomer or polymer of ethylene oxide. The three names are chemically synonymous, but historically PEG is preferred in the biomedical field, whereas PEO is more prevalent in the field of polymer chemistry. Because different applications require different polymer chain lengths, PEG 600 has tended to refer to oligomers and polymers with a molecular mass below 20,000 g/mol, PEO to polymers with a molecular mass above 20,000 g/mol, and POE to a polymer of any molecular mass.[30] PEG 600 s are prepared by polymerization of ethylene oxide and are commercially available over a wide range of molecular weights from 300 g/mol to 10,000,000 g/mol.[31] PEG 600 and PEO are liquids or low-melting solids, depending on their molecular weights. While PEG 600 and PEO with different molecular weights find use in different applications, and have different physical properties (e.g. viscosity) due to chain length effects, their chemical properties are nearly identical. Different forms of PEG are also available, depending on the initiator used for the polymerization process - the most common initiator is a monofunctional methyl ether PEG 600, or methoxypoly(ethylene glycol), abbreviated mPEG. Lower-molecular-weight PEGs are also available as purer oligomers, referred to as monodisperse, uniform, or discrete. Very high purity PEG 600 has recently been shown to be crystalline, allowing determination of a crystal structure by x-ray diffraction.[31] Since purification and separation of pure oligomers is difficult, the price for this type of quality is often 10-1000 fold that of polydisperse PEG 600 PEGs are also available with different geometries. Branched PEGs have three to ten PEG 600 chains emanating from a central core group. Star PEGs have 10 to 100 PEG chains emanating from a central core group. Comb PEGs have multiple PEG 600 chains normally grafted onto a polymer backbone. The numbers that are often included in the names of PEGs indicate their average molecular weights (e.g. a PEG with n = 9 would have an average molecular weight of approximately 400 daltons, and would be labeled PEG 400.) Most PEGs include molecules with a distribution of molecular weights (i.e. they are polydisperse). The size distribution can be characterized statistically by its weight average molecular weight (Mw) and its number average molecular weight (Mn), the ratio of which is called the polydispersity index (Mw/Mn). Mw and Mn can be measured by mass spectrometry.


PEGylation is the act of covalently coupling a PEG structure to another larger molecule, for example, a therapeutic protein, which is then referred to as a PEGylated protein. PEGylated interferon alfa-2a or -2b are commonly used injectable treatments for hepatitis C infection. PEG is soluble in water, methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile, benzene, and dichloromethane, and is insoluble in diethyl ether and hexane. It is coupled to hydrophobic molecules to produce non-ionic surfactants.[32] PEGs potentially contain toxic impurities, such as ethylene oxide and 1,4-dioxane.[33] Ethylene Glycol and its ethers are nephrotoxic if applied to damaged skin.[34] Polyethylene oxide (PEO, Mw 4 kDa) nanometric crystallites (4 nm) Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and related polymers (PEG phospholipid constructs) are often sonicated when used in biomedical applications. However, as reported by Murali et al., PEG is very sensitive to sonolytic degradation and PEG degradation products can be toxic to mammalian cells. It is, thus, imperative to assess potential PEG degradation to ensure that the final material does not contain undocumented contaminants that can introduce artifacts into experimental results.[35] PEGs and methoxypolyethylene glycols are manufactured by Dow Chemical under the tradename Carbowax for industrial use, and Carbowax Sentry for food and pharmaceutical use. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid, depending on the molecular weight, as indicated by a number following the name. They are used commercially in numerous applications, including as surfactants, in foods, in cosmetics, in pharmaceutics, in biomedicine, as dispersing agents, as solvents, in ointments, in suppository bases, as tablet excipients, and as laxatives. Some specific groups are lauromacrogols, nonoxynols, octoxynols, and poloxamers Macrogol, used as a laxative, is a form of polyethylene glycol. The name may be followed by a number which represents the average molecular weight (e.g. macrogol 3350, macrogol 4000 or macrogol 6000). Production Polyethylene glycol 400, pharmaceutical quality Polyethylene glycol 4000, pharmaceutical quality production of polyethylene glycol was first reported in 1859. Both A. V. Lourenço and Charles Adolphe Wurtz independently isolated products that were polyethylene glycols.[36] Polyethylene glycol is produced by the interaction of ethylene oxide with water, PEG 600, ethylene glycol, or ethylene glycol oligomers.[37] The reaction is catalyzed by acidic or basic catalysts. Ethylene glycol and its oligomers are preferable as a starting material instead of water, because they allow the creation of polymers with a low polydispersity (narrow molecular weight distribution). Polymer chain length depends on the ratio of reactants.



Depending on the catalyst type, the mechanism of polymerization can be cationic or anionic. The anionic mechanism is preferable because it allows one to obtain PEG with a low polydispersity. Polymerization of ethylene oxide is an exothermic process. Overheating or contaminating ethylene oxide with catalysts such as alkalis or metal oxides can lead to runaway polymerization, which can end in an explosion after a few hours. Polyethylene oxide, or high-molecular weight polyethylene glycol, is synthesized by suspension polymerization. It is necessary to hold the growing polymer chain in solution in the course of the polycondensation process. The reaction is catalyzed by magnesium-, aluminium-, or calcium-organoelement compounds. To prevent coagulation of polymer chains from solution, chelating additives such as dimethylglyoxime are used. Alkaline catalysts such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), or sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) are used to prepare low-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol.

Lauryl methyl gluceth-10 hydroxypropyl dimonium chloride Context in source publication Context 1 ... of the oldest usages of thermal energy storage (TES) goes back to the time when ice was provided from frozen lakes and rivers in the winter. The collected ice was then kept in well insulated warehouse to satisfy the needs for food conservation, air conditioning through the year. The air conditioning of Hungarian Parliament Building in Budapest is still done by ice harvested from Lake Balaton in the winter [1]. In order to condition the indoors air via changing the material phase, phase change material (PCM) can be embedded in a heat exchanger. During the night PEG 600, PCM solidifies and the energy can be released (discharge cycle) and subsequently during the hot day, via a move through the heat exchanger, air is cooled and PCM melts (charge cycle). Medved and Arkar [2]-[5] used a cylindrical LHTES filled with spheres of encapsulated RT20 paraffin. They concluded that the ratio of the volumetric air flow to mass of the PCM has more influence upon the results than each individual parameter [2]. They also concluded that the greatest potential for free cooling exists in the areas with a higher temperature difference between the day and the night, i.e. variation of diurnal temperature is the major factor. Moreover, they showed that the most suitable PCM for each area is the one with a melting point of 2  C higher than the average diurnal temperature [3]. In order to model the heat transfer in the LHTES under unsteady-state conditions, they used an adapted 2D continuous-solid-phase packed-bed model. The major assumption of this model is that the spheres behave as a continuous medium and not as a medium comprised of independent particles. Moreover fluid phase thermal dispersion, this model can consider the solid-phase heat conduction [2]. Vakilaltojjar and Saman [6] integrated a flat slab phase change thermal storage unit (PCTSU) employing two PCMs (calcium chloride hexahydrate and Potassium fluoride tetrahydrate) in different sections into conventional air conditioning. They proposed 3 models with different assumptions. The results of their investigation showed that decreasing the gaps between flat slabs enhances the efficiency. In the present research work a one-dimensional model including axial conduction for a LHTES containing flat slabs of PCM has been presented. The modeling data have been validated by the experimental results. Our goal is to investigate the accuracy of the proposed model for describing the LHTES and also to investigate the dependency of LHTES efficiency on the operational parameters i.e. velocity and temperature of the heat transfer fluid. Poly Ethylene Glycol 600 (PEG 600), a product of Fluka Corporation, and Poly Ethylene Glycol 1000 (PEG 1000) have been used as PCM. In order to find out the temperature span for the phase change of PEG 600 and PEG 1000, DSC analysis was done by "Netzsch DSC 200 F3". Results of this analysis are shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2. Other properties of PEG 600 and PEG 1000 are listed in Table 1. In this model the major assumption is that all the existing PCM in each control volume behave simultaneously. The mathematical model is based on the following assumptions: 1- Axial conduction in the air is neglected in the direction of the flow. For justifying this assumption Peclet number can be used [8]: P e > 100 axial conduction in the air can be neglected in the flow direction P e < 100 axial conduction in the air can NOT be neglected in the flow ... Performance of R407C as an Alternate to R22: A Review Article -text available Mar 2017 Shailendra Kasera Shishir Chandra Bhaduri The outcome of R407C as a drop in replacement of R22 has been reviewed in this paper. As per Montreal Protocol, R22 is going to be phase out due to its unfavourable impacts related to environment e.g. ozone depletion potential (ODP) and global warming potential (GWP). R407C has zero ODP and considerably GWP as compared to R22. The releasing of refr... View Citations .. A latent heat thermal energy storage system containing flat slabs filled with phase change materials was analyzed by an analytical one-dimensional model [28] . A tested prototype was introduced without information about the measurement accuracy of the equipment used. ... Preferred physical-mathematical model of the cold energy storage system Article Oct 2016APPL THERM ENG Boris M. Menin View ... Mathematical modeling of PCR has been reported in the literature by Foumeny and Ma [5], Tabrizi and Sadrameli [6], and Modaressi and Sadrameli [7] . Recently Mir- ahmad [8] presented a mathematical model for a PCR applied for the free cooling system. The applications of phase change materials in the regenerator must be incorporated with encapsulate techniques. ... ... The measured outlet temperature results have been compared with the model predictions. A latent heat thermal energy storage system containing flat plates of polyethylene glycol 600 and 1000 has been designed and built by Mirahmad [8,87]. A one-dimensional model in which axial conduction is considered was applied to analyze the experimental data and the predicted results have been compared with experimental data [8,87]. ... ... A latent heat thermal energy storage system containing flat plates of polyethylene glycol 600 and 1000 has been designed and built by Mirahmad [8,87]. A one-dimensional model in which axial conduction is considered was applied to analyze the experimental data and the predicted results have been compared with experimental data [8,87]. ... High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of PEG 600 in human urine. Kinahan IM1, Smyth MR. Author information 1 School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Ireland. Abstract Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are non-ionic, water-soluble synthetic polymers which have been widely used for many applications. Since they are of very low toxicity and are readily excreted in urine, PEGs in the molecular weight range 400-6000 have been used extensively in the study of intestinal physiology in man. A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the determination of PEG 600 in human urine, which includes a pre-column derivatisation step. The dibenzoate derivatives of PEG 600 can be quantitatively prepared, and this, coupled with ultraviolet detection at 230 nm, has greatly improved the limit of detection for the determination of PEGs by HPLC. A suitable extraction procedure has also been developed which enabled PEG levels in urine to be monitored with much greater sensitivity than any previously reported method.

PMID: 1874874 DOI: 10.1016/0378-4347(91)80391-o
Polyether PEG-600
Is a product of ethylene oxide polymerization with ethylene glycol (MEG). The product is used to manufacture plasticizers, in chemical, textile, rubber, metal-working industries and others in line with the opinion of the Ministry of Health. Characteristics of polyether PEG-600 Design specification: TU 2226-074-05766801-2006 Chemical name: Alpha-Hydro-omega-hydroxypoly (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) Empirical formula: Н(О-СН2-СН2)n-ОН Parameter Value Color of 25 % aqueous solution, Hazen units, max 25 рН of 5 % aqueous solution 5.0-7.5 Kinematic viscosity at (40.0±0.3) °C, mm2/s 59-66 Hydroxyl number, mg КОН/g 172-205 ash mass content, % by mass, max 0.1 Water mass content, % by mass, max 0.5 Supply form: Colorless or faintly yellowish, transparent, viscous liquid with weak specific odor. Packaging: Polyether PEG-600 is shipped in aluminum, steel or polymer drums, steel dedicated containers, as well as into rail tank cars, equipped with the bottom discharge and heating. Transportation: Polyether PEG-600 is transported by all types of transportation means. Storage: Polyether PEG-600 stored in leak- and moisture-proof containers or vessels. Packing polyether PEG-600 Metal barrel 216.5 liters Plastic barrel 227 litersIntermediate bulk container 1000 liter Tank truck in bulk How to buy polyether PEG-600 call on the phone: +7 (843) 207-18-40 +7 (717) 269-58-17 (from Kazakhstan) +380 (44) 392-49-96 (from Ukraine) a letter on e-mail fill in online request request a call back Viber Telegram Buy polyether of other brands Polyether PEG-200 a product of ethylene oxide polymerization with ethylene glycol. The product is used to manufacture plasticizers, in chemical, textile, rubber, metal-working industries and others in line with the opinion of the Ministry of Health. Polyether PEG-300 Is a product of ethylene oxide polymerization with ethylene glycol. The product is used to manufacture plasticizers, in chemical, textile, rubber, metal-working industries and others in line with the opinion of the Ministry of Health. Polyether PEG-400 Is a product of ethylene oxide polymerization with ethylene glycol. The product is used to manufacture plasticizers, in chemical, textile, rubber, metal-working industries and others in line with the opinion of the Ministry of Health. Characterization of cellulose triacetate membranes, produced from sugarcane bagasse, using PEG 600 as additive

Authors Authors and affiliations Daniel Alves CerqueiraGuimes Rodrigues FilhoEmail authorRosana Maria Nascimento de AssuncãoCarla da Silva MeirelesLeandra Cardoso ToledoMara ZeniKátia MelloJocelei Duarte 1. 2. First Online: 24 October 2007 Cellulose Acetate (CA) produced from sugarcane bagasse cellulose was used to produce membranes, using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 600) as additive. Results showed that PEG 600 was washed out the membranes during the preparation step. Thermal Analysis showed that the temperature of degradation of the membranes increased in 10 °C when PEG 600 was added to the composition, but did not change as more PEG 600 was added in the composition. On the other hand, the crystalline content (%C) of the membranes increased as PEG 600 was added. The addition of PEG 600 also increased the resistance of the membranes to pressure and the pure water flux rate, but membranes produced with PEG 600 content lower than 5% did not present water flux. PEG 600 also increased the coefficient of ion diffusion of the membranes.

Keywords Xylitol Cellulose Acetate Sugarcane Bagasse Water Flux Dope Solution These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. CARBOWAXTM PEG 600 Company: Dow Chemical - Home and Personal Care INCI Name: PEG-12 DOCUMENTS CARBOWAXTM PEG 600 Datasheet Join Prospector for free! Prospector is a specialty search engine where you can: Access 1000's of Technical Documents Evaluate Material Data & Specifications Get Pricing and Technical Assistance CREATE YOUR FREE ACCOUNT Dow Chemical - Home and Personal Care makes their documentation available in the regions indicated below: A water-soluble linear polymer formed by the addition reaction of ethylene oxide with a molecular weight of 570 to 630. COMPANY Dow offers unique innovative ingredients that empower brand owners around the world to create products with exceptional performance and exciting new benefits consumers can see and feel. We continue to bring forward new technologies and formulation solutions that differentiate our customers' products, enhance the consumer experience and sustain the environment. With a deep understanding of customers' needs, combined with our knowledge of market insights and technical expertise, and broad portfolio of technologies, we help deliver solutions across home and personal care applications from hair and skin care to fabric care, dish care and beyond. Our novel solutions help enable products that are unique and memorable, and meet the growing demands of today's consumers. With business centers, research and development (R&D), manufacturing plants and customer applications centers around the globe, Dow has the expertise and foundation to foster global and local innovations.

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Ingredients Categories Surfactants ~ Glycols ~ Ethylene Glycols Glycols ~ Ethylene Glycols WHERE TO BUY Chemical - Home and Personal Care Visit Website Are you distributor who is interested in being Commercial product name Polyethylene glycol 600, PEG 600 Use of the substance/preparation petroleum chemicals, coatings, ubricants, plastics, inks Synonyms Ethylene oxide polymer, Poly(oxyethylene) glycol CAS-nr 25322-68-3 EC-nr 500-038-2 Company Fred Holmberg & Co AB Adress Box 60056 S-216 10 Limhamn Sweden number +46 (0)40 15 79 20 Fax +46 (0)40 16 22 95 e-mail fred.info@holmberg.se Contact person Fred Holmberg Emergency telephone number Fred Holmberg 040-15 79 20 (office hours) or. 08-33 12 31 toxicity information central (office hours), 112 for emergency central by Linus Olofsson, Fred Holmberg & Co AB, Tel. +46 (0)480-42 20 00 This product is not classified as dangerous according to EC criteria. EC-nr CAS-nr Substance Conc. % (w/w) Classification 500-038-2 25322-68-3 Polyethylene glycol 100.0 Not classified as hazardous material. Inhalation Move person to fresh air; if effects occur, consult a physician. Skin contact Take off contaminated clothing. Wash skin with plenty
of water.
Eye contact Flush eyes thoroughly with water for several minutes.
Remove contact lenses after the initial 1-2 minutes and
continue flushing for several additional minutes. If
effects occur, consult a physician, preferably an
Ingestion No emergency medical treatment necessary.
Protection of first-aiders No special precautions required.
Notes to physician Treat symptomatically.
Suitable extinguishing media Use dry chemical, CO2, water spray or alcohol
resistant foam.
Extinguishing media which must not be
used for safety reason

The building sector is one of the sectors where energy consumption has been expanding consistently to achieve 20-40% of the aggregate energy use in most countries. Thermal energy storage (TES) with phase change materials (PCM) is valuable technique for enhancing energy proficiency of a building by lessening the mismatch amongst supply and demand of heat or cold. This paper aims to investigate thermal comfort and energy saving in buildings by incorporating polyethylene glycol (PEG) 600 as phase change material with concrete. A concrete PCM system which is located in Khartoum, Sudan was used to study the thermal behavior of a building in response to outdoor environmental exposure. The concrete PCM ceiling system is consisted of two models; one with PCM and the other without PCM. The experimental analysis was done with and without present of fan in the concrete model with PCM. The results showed that the model with PCM could reduce the peak temperature with and without using fan by 4 °C and 1 °C respectively. The results additionally demonstrated that PCM could improve the storage of thermal mass of concrete about 6 times. The heat capacity and high density of concrete integrated with latent heat storage of PCM provides an energy saving concepts for sustainable built environment.
Published in: 2018 International Conference on Computer, Control, Electrical, and Electronics Engineering (ICCCEEE)
Date of Conference: 12-14 Aug. 2018
Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 01 November 2018
ISBN Information:
INSPEC Accession Number: 18201455
DOI: 10.1109/ICCCEEE.2018.8515846
Publisher: IEEE
Conference Location: Khartoum, Sudan
I. Introduction
Energy has constantly been the predominant main PEG 600 impetus for the financial advancement of humanity. During last decades, the energy systems around the world are abundantly depended upon non-sustainaule energy sources (i.e., petroleum, natural gas, and coal) with all the consequent impediments such as fossil fIJel energy reliance and ecological pollution [1]. Amid several decades, developed and developing countries have utilized fossil energy seriously for development purposes in almost all economic segments such as manufacturing industry, residents, transport, and agriculture. This prompted imperative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in almost all areas of the world [2]. The building sector is one of the sectors where energy consumption has been expanding consistently to achieve 20- 40% of the aggregate energy use in most countries. PEG 600 As request in thermal comfort of structures increases progressively, the energy consumption is correspondingly expanding. The most amount of energy consumption in buildings PEG 600 sector is associated with ventilation, heating and cooling systems [3]. The need of enhancing the energy efficiency of the constructed condition brought about the improvement of different techniques of better utilization of energy in buildings [4]. One of the preeminent worries ofuse of air conditioning systems, which have generally been utilized in residential and industrial sectors, is electrical energy usage for gas compression which is practical as well as prompts more ozone harming gases, shortage of fossil fuels in the close feature, daily ascend in fuel costs and environmental difficulties, which are the primary motivators to discover ways for utilizing energy more adequately particularly in residential sectors. Thermal energy storage (TES) is valuaule innovation for enhancing energy proficiency of a building by lessening the mismatch amongst supply and demand ofheat or cold.


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