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Sodium molybdate, Na2MoO4, is useful as a source of molybdenum. This white, crystalline salt is often found as the dihydrate, Na2MoO4·2H2O.

CAS Number
10102-40-6 (dihydrate) 

EC / List no.: 600-158-6
CAS no.: 10102-40-6

Molybdate (MoO42-), sodium, hydrate (1:2:2), (T-4)-

IUPAC names
disodium dioxido(dioxo)molybdenum dihydrate
Molybdate (MoO42-), sodium, hydrate (1:2:2), (T-4)-
Molybdenan sodný dihydrát
sodium molibdate 2h2o
Sodium Molybdate
sodium molybdate
sodium molybdate dhydrate
Sodium molybdate dihydrate
sodium molybdate dihydrate

disodium molibdate
Molybdate (MoO4(2-)), disodium, dihydrate, (T-4)
Sodium Molybdate
Sodium molybdate dihydrate

EC / List no.: 231-551-7
CAS no.: 7631-95-0
Disodium molybdate
CAS names: Molybdate (MoO42-), sodium (1:2), (T-4)-

IUPAC names
Dinatriummolybdat dihydrat
Disodium dioxido (dioxo)molybdate
disodium dioxido(dioxo)molybdenum 
disodium dioxido(dioxo)molybdenum dihydrate
disodium dioxido-dioxomolybdenum 
disodium dioxomolybdenumbis(olate)
Disodium Molybdate
Disodium tetraoxomolybdate
disodium tetraoxomolybdate dihydrate
Sodium molybdate dihydrate
Sodium molybdate(VI) dihydrate

Sodium Molybdate
Sodium Molybdate Anhydrous
Sodium Molybdate Crystalline (SMC)
Sodium Molybdate Dihydrate

There are two main forms of Sodium Molybdate. 
Sodium Molybdate, Dihydrate is a crystalline powder. 
It loses its water of crystallization at 100 degrees Celsius. 
It is known to be less toxic than the other corresponding compounds of group 6B elements in the periodic table. 
Sodium Molybdate, Dihydrate is used in the manufacturing of inorganic and organic pigments, as a corrosion inhibitor, as a bath additive for finishing metals finishing, as a reagent for alkaloids, and as an essential micronutrient for plants and animals.

Sodium Molybdate, Anhydrous is a small, lustrous, crystalline plate. 
It has the melting point of 687 degrees Celsius and a density of 3.28 (18C). 
It is soluble in water and also noncombustible. 
It can be used for reagent in analytical chemistry, paint pigment, production of molybdated toners and lakes, metal finishing, brightening agent for zinc plating, corrosion inhibitor, catalyst in dye and pigment production, additive for fertilizers and feeds, and micronutrient.

SODIUM MOLIBDATE is a Plant Nutrient that is directly involved in the metabolic functions of nitrogen in the plant.
Sodium molybdate helps with the uptake of nitrogen, ensuring efficient nitrogen-fixing for these plants, and allowing nitrogen to be synthesized into ammonia and essential amino acids.

Sodium molybdate is a source of molybdenum oxide, and this chemical has a variety of useful industrial, commercial, and agricultural purposes

SODIUM MOLIBDATE is a crystalline powder of 100% sodium molybdate, which may be used either as a seeddressing or foliar spray to combat molybdenum deficiency in agricultural crops.

Sodium Molybdate (Sodium Molybdate Dihydrate) is widely used in manufacturing, including agricultural fertilizers, pigments, catalysts, fire retardants, corrosion inhibitors, as well as water treatment.


LUCERN:  125 – 250 g/ha 
Seed treatment simultaneously with inoculation.

Foliar spray onto young regrowth after cutting.

TOMATOES: 250 g/ha Molybdenum deficiency occurs generally in the Transvaal Lowveld, especially on acid soils.
Apply to the planting furrow just before transplanting, or as a foliar spray.

MAIZE:  60 g/1,25 ℓ water
Place 100 kg seed in a drum with watertight lid.
Add the solution and turn the drum over for 15 to 20 minutes by rolling or by turning on an axle by means of a handle. 
The seed may be treated any time before planting.

CRUCIFEROUS CROPS: 100 – 250 g/ha 
Spray the young plants with a solution of water.

CUCURBITS: 2 g/1 ℓ water 
Let the seed soak overnight in a 0,2% solution and plant directly afterwards.

SUNFLOWER: 25 g/25 g seed A solution of the trace element should be applied uniformly to the seed.
50 g/100 ℓ water Apply to the seedling as a full cover foliar spray.

Why Sodium Molybdate Is Used In Agriculture Industry

In recent times, the agriculture sector is used the best chemical compounds for fertilizer. 
One of the popular chemicals for fertilizer application is sodium molybdate. 
The fertilizer uses this chemical easily soluble in water and soaks into the soil that reduces the runoff. 
It helps to reduce the waste chemical compound, which can harm the environment. 
Sodium Molybdate is mostly used as an important micronutrient for animals and plants, additive for metals finishing, and much more.

Overview of sodium molybdate

It is available in different forms such as Sodium Molybdate and Dihydrate, which is a crystalline powder. 
This chemical is lower toxic when compared to other compounds of group 6B parts in the table. 
It is mostly used in organic and inorganic pigment manufacturing. 
Anhydrous is a small crystalline plate that has a 687 degrees Celsius melting point. 
This chemical is easily soluble in water. 
It is mostly used for reagents in paint pigment, molybdated toner production, brightening agent for zinc plating, paint pigment, and much more.

Benefits of using  Sodium Molybdate

Nowadays,  Sodium Molybdate is used in different sectors such as printing, manufacturing, metalwork, agriculture, and others due to its benefits. 
Over one million pounds of this chemical fertilizer are used every year. Followings are some common benefits of using this mineral.

The molybdate contains lots of elements in the highest oxidation state. It helps to the high solubility of chemical compounds in the water. 
Sodium Molybdate is beneficial for fertilizer application in the agriculture sector. 
Sodium Molybdate is used as a delivery vessel for important micronutrients in the plant. 
It is the main reason for using this chemical compound for fertilizer in agriculture.

Farmers mostly use sodium molybdate that provides important micronutrients.  
Sodium Molybdate helps to drive the function of the plant effectively. The efficiency of the plant is not only by the smaller amount required to make an impact on the plant. 
It can administer the chemical in absorbing water-based substances quickly.

Sodium Molybdate is mostly used by people who focus on leguminous plants such as peanut, peas, lentils, alfalfa, and much more.  
Sodium Molybdate aids with the nitrogen intake and assures effective nitrogen-fixing for some plants. 
This chemical lets to fix atmospheric nitrogen available in the surrounding by the bacteria. 
It converts the nitrogen to synthesize into the amino acid, ammonia, and others in the plant.

Agricultural Additive For Fertilizer
Sodium molybdate is widely used as an agricultural additive on farms. 
It’s an ideal choice for fertilizer applications. 
This is because the basic chemistry of molybdate compounds like sodium molybdate include molybdenum oxide at its highest oxidation state.

This means that Sodium molybdate is highly-soluble in water. 
This means that fertilizers using sodium molybdate easily combine and mix with water and soak into soil, delivering molybdenum oxide and other valuable micronutrients into the roots and minimizing runoff, which wastes chemical compounds and can have negative environmental consequences.

Sodium molybdate is particularly popular among farmers who primarily focus on legumes like lentils, beans, alfalfa, and peanuts. 
Sodium molybdate helps with the uptake of nitrogen, ensuring efficient nitrogen-fixing for these plants, and allowing nitrogen to be synthesized into ammonia and essential amino acids.

Hydroponic Farming & Agriculture
Similarly to traditional soil-based fertilizer applications, sodium molybdate can be used in hydroponic farming, which uses inert substrates as the growing medium instead of soil. 
Mineral nutrient solutions are delivered directly to the plants using water, so highly-soluble nutrients and fertilizers – such as sodium molybdate – are very desirable for these purposes. 

Corrosion Inhibitor 
Sodium molybdate is commonly used as a metal corrosion inhibitor for iron and steel, and is commonly found in water treatment products like chiller systems, where bimetallic design and construction can raise the risk of metal corrosion. 

This additive is primarily used in closed-loop systems, and is regarded to be far superior to other corrosion inhibitors like sodium nitrate. 
At concentrations of just 50 to 100 ppm, sodium molybdate offers superior performance compared to 800+ ppm concentrations of sodium nitrate. 

Sodium Molybdate is used in water treatment, including industrial water treatment due to its low toxicity. 
The advantage of Sodium Molybdate in water treatment is that it is effective in low dosages, which maintains low conductivity of water and prevents corrosion by reducing galvanic corrosion potentials.

Sodium Molybdate is also used for metal surface treatment, including galvanizing and polishing.

Nutritional Supplement
Some people may choose to supplement their diets with sodium molybdate. 
These products can be found on their own, but molybdenum is typically found in multivitamins and complex vitamins. 
Typical doses for dietary supplements range from about 50 mcg to 500 mcg (micrograms) of sodium molybdate. 

Most people do not need an additional source of molybdenum, as this micronutrient is present in a wide variety of foods, such as legumes, yogurt, potatoes, whole-grain bread, beef liver, spinach, corn, cheese, tuna, and more.

However, in individuals who may have an improper diet or who wish to ensure they get adequate micronutrients, sodium molybdate is a good option. 
Cases of toxicity due to excessive intake of molybdenum are rare, and usually only occur due to exposure in the mining and metalworking industries, so supplementing with sodium molybdate is typically harmless. 

Molybdenum importance for appropriate plant functioning and growth is inconsistent by the most of the plants in respect to the total quantity that is obligatory for them. 
Molybdenum is a micronutrient that is directly involved in the metabolic functions of nitrogen in the plant. 
The transition metal molybdenum, in molybdate form, is essential for plants as a number of enzymes use it to catalyze most important reactions in the nitrogen acclimatization, the synthesis of the phytohormone, degradation of the purine and the detoxification of the sulfite. 
There are more than known 50 different enzymes that need Mo, whether direct or indirect impacts on plant growth and development, primarily phytohormones and the N-metabolism involving processes.

Molybdenum deficiency in plants

Molybdenum (Mo) is one of the six ‘minor’ chemical elements required by green plants. 
The other five are iron, copper, zinc, manganese and boron.
These elements are termed ‘minor’ because plants need them in only very small amounts (in comparison with the ‘major’ elements nitrogen, phosphorus,potassium, sulfur, calcium and magnesium). 
But they are essential for normal growth.
Of these six minor elements, molybdenum is needed in smaller quantities than any of the others. 
As little as 50 grams of molybdenum per hectare will satisfy the needs of most crops.
Molybdenum is often present in farmyard manure, in seeds or other planting material such as tubers and corms, and as impurities in some artificial fertilisers.
The molybdenum supply from the seed appears to be significant only where the size of the seed is fairly large. 
For example, the molybdenum content of bean, pea and maize seed can be important, but that of tomato seed is probably of little significance

Molybdenum in acid soils tends to be unavailable to plants. This is why most molybdenum deficiencies occur on acid, rather than on neutral or alkaline soils. 
A few cases of molybdenum deficiency have been reported on soils with a pH above 6.0, but most occur where pH is 5.5 or less. 
(Note: On the pH scale 7.0 is neutral. Less than 7 indicates acidity, and above 7.0 alkalinity.)

Molybdenum is needed by plants for chemical changes associated with nitrogen nutrition. 
In non-legumes (such as cauliflowers, tomatoes, lettuce, sunflowers and maize), molybdenum enables the plant to use the nitrates taken up from the soil. 
Where the plant has insufficient molybdenum the nitrates accumulate in the leaves and the plant cannot use them to make proteins. 
The result is that the plant becomes stunted, with symptoms similar to those of nitrogen deficiency. 
At the same time, the edges of the leaves may become scorched by the accumulation of unused nitrates. 
In legumes such as clovers, lucerne, beans and peas, molybdenum serves two functions. 
The plant needs it to break down any nitrates taken up from the soil—in the same way as non-legumes use molybdenum. 
And it helps in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by the root nodule bacteria. 
Legumes need more molybdenum to fix nitrogen than to utilise nitrates. 

The main symptoms of molybdenum deficiency in non-legumes are stunting and failure of leaves to develop a healthy dark green colour. 
The leaves of affected plants show a pale green or yellowish green colour between the veins and along the edges. 
In advanced stages, the leaf tissue at the margins of the leaves dies. 
The older leaves are the more severely affected. 
In cauliflowers, the yellowing of the tissue on the outer leaves is followed by the death of the edges of the small heart leaves. 
When these develop, the absence of leaf tissue on their edges results in the formation of narrow, distorted leaves to which the name ‘whiptail’ has been applied. 
Affected leaves are usually slightly thickened and the leaf edges tend to curl upwards, especially in tomatoes. 
It has been mentioned that legumes such as peas and beans need molybdenum either for utilisation of nitrates (as do non-legumes), or for nitrogen fixation by root nodule bacteria. 
Where molybdenum is deficient, and adequate nitrogen is available from fertilisers applied to the soil, symptoms of molybdenum deficiency are similar to those seen in non-legumes, namely, interveinal and marginal leaf chlorosis followed by death of the tissue on the leaf margins. 
These symptoms are seen in a condition found in french beans in the Gosford district, to which the name ‘scald’ has been applied. 
In lucerne, clover and other pasture legumes, the main symptoms are associated with an inability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. 
This stunting and yellowing is identical with nitrogen deficiency and resembles legumes having no nodules and grown in poor soils. 

 In some crops, especially cauliflowers, there are very characteristic molybdenum deficiency symptoms. 
In others it is not always possible to diagnose with certainty whether a plant or a crop is suffering from a low supply of molybdenum. 
The best way to find out is to apply a solution of sodium molybdate or ammonium molybdate to the leaves of the plants or to the soil at their base, and see whether there is any response. 
This would be in the form of improved growth or development of a healthy leaf colour, compared with similar, untreated plants. 
Certain chemical tests can help diagnose molybdenum deficiency. 
In addition, the following can often help determine whether it is worthwhile making a trial application of molybdenum: 
• Occurrence of whiptail in cauliflowers in the same locality. 
Cauliflowers have a high molybdenum requirement. 
If they are growing well on an unlimed soil, and without any trace of whiptail disease, it is unlikely that other crops in that area would suffer from molybdenum deficiency. 
• Soil acidity. As mentioned earlier, molybdenum deficiency is more likely on acid soils having a pH of 5.5 or less
• Use of farmyard manure. Where large amounts of farmyard manure have been used, molybdenum deficiency is less likely. 
• Patchy distribution of affected plants. Patchy distribution is characteristic of molybdenum deficiency. 
The whole crop may be affected, but it is much more usual to find patches of affected plants in an otherwise healthy crop, or vice versa. 

 In most soils, molybdenum present in an unavailable form will be released by applying lime or dolomite. 
The effect of liming on molybdenum availability is slow and it may take several months to correct the deficiency. 
The amounts of lime or dolomite needed may range from 2 to 8 tonnes per hectare, depending on initial pH of the soil and whether it is sandy or heavy textured. 
Unless lime is likely to be beneficial for other reasons, it is quicker and cheaper to apply a molybdenum compound to the soil or to the crop. 
Where one of the molybdenum compounds is used, the quantities recommended vary from 75 g to 1 kg/ ha depending on the crop and the molybdenum material. 
Molybdenum can be applied in the following ways:
• mixed with fertiliser; or 
• in solution, to — seedlings in the seedbed before transplanting; — the leaves of plants in the field; or — the soil at the base of plants in the field.

Clovers and lucerne Molybdenum trioxide (or equivalent amounts of sodium molybdate or ammonium molybdate): 75 g/ ha mixed with superphosphate. Vegetable crops 
(a) Mixed with fertiliser. Ammonium molybdate or sodium molybdate, 1 kg/ha. 
(b) Seedbed application to crops such as cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage and tomato. 
Ammonium molybdate or sodium molybdate, 40 g dissolved in 50 L water and watered on to each 10 m2 of seedbed about one to two weeks before transplanting. 
(Following such seedbed applications, cauliflower seedlings often develop a distinct blue colour in the stems and leaves. 
This blue colour gradually disappears when they are transplanted.)
(c) Field application to growing crops. About 50 g of ammonium molybdate or sodium molybdate in 100 L water. 
This may be sprayed onto the leaves of plants such as tomatoes and beans or it can be applied to the ground at the base of the plants, giving each cauliflower or tomato plant about 150 mL of solution. 
These recommendations are usually more than enough to supply the molybdenum requirements of crops. 
Lower rates may be adequate, but more than the recommended rate is a waste of money, and may injure the plants. 

Molybdenum compounds used for crops include molybdenum trioxide, sodium molybdate and ammonium molybdate. 
Choice of the material to be used depends on whether it is to be applied with fertilizer or as a solution Molybdenum trioxide is only partially soluble in water. 
It is the form usually used in molybdenized superphosphate but is not suitable for making up sprays to treat a growing crop. 
Molybdenum trioxide (also called molybdic oxide) contains 66 per cent molybdenum. 
Ammonium molybdate contains 54 per cent molybdenum. 
Though it is soluble in water, it is frequently sold in large lumps which dissolve slowly in cold water. 
It is better either to use hot water to dissolve the lumps or to crush them to a fine powder before adding to the water 
Sodium molybdate is usually sold in a form containing 39 per cent molybdenum. 
It is sold as fine crystals which dissolve readily in cold water and this material is undoubtedly the most convenient for the preparation of solutions to be used for spraying

Sodium Molybdate is a free flowing soluble crystalline fertiliser and is used to supply the trace element molybdenum to crops and livestock in various situations. 
Sodium Molybdate is only required in very small quantities to satisfy annual plant requirements.
Sodium Molybdate is suitable for foliar or fertigation application on a wide range of horticultural and broad acre crops and pastures.

• Supplies the essential trace element molybdenum to crops and livestock 
• Foliar applied to crops and pastures grown on acid soils where plant availability is low 
• Essential for conversion of nitrates in leaves to amino acids and proteins 
• Suitable for foliar or fertigation 
• Ideal for brassica, beans, peas, grapes, cucurbits, canola, clover and other crops and pastures susceptible to molybdenum deficiency.

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