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Malic Acid is an organic compound that is the active ingredient in many sour and tart foods. 
It can be blended with multiple food acids, sugars, high intensity sweeteners, flavors and seasonings to create distinctive taste experiences in foods, beverages, and confections.

Malic Acid is also used in the manufacture of skin and dental care products and can be used in a number of technical applications, such as Electroplating and metal cleaning.

Malic Acid is generated during metabolism of living cells in the Kreb’s cycle and occurs naturally in all fruits and many vegetables. 
It is the predominant acid in apples thus the name is derived from the Latin name for apples which is malus. 
Malic Acid is also essential in the preparation of medical products such as throat lozenges, cough syrups, effervescent powdered preparations, toothpaste, and mouthwash.

Additionally, Malic Acid is used in the manufacture of skin care products to rejuvenate and improve skin conditions and also can be used in a number of technical applications, such as metal cleaning, textile dying to improve color value, and paint, preventing the formation of skin on the top layer during storage.

Carbonated Beverages
Adding Malic Acid improves artificially sweetened products. Flavors are enhanced, allowing the use of less additives, and the overall flavor profile is broader, smoother and more natural.

Non-carbonated Beverages
Malic Acid is a preferred acidulant for still beverages (fruit drinks, nectars, iced-teas, sports drinks, calcium fortified juices), because it enhances fruit flavors, improves pH stability, and masks the aftertaste of artificial sweeteners and some salts.

Ciders and Wines
For alcoholic apple ciders, Malic Acid is added to maintain a consistent “sharp” taste.

Malic Acid gives an appealing tartness to hard, soft, tableted, and sugarless candies as well as chewing gum. Blending multiple acids creates unique tasting confections. 
Malic Acid’s high solubility allows it to be blended with cooled confections. Adding acids at the end of the candy making process minimizes sugar inversion.

Hard Candy
Malic Acid boosts sourness intensity and enhances fruit flavors. 
It has a lower melting point than other food acids this means that it can be incorporated into molten hard candy without added water. 
The shelf life is increased as the initial moisture level in the hard candy is lower.

Soft Candy
In agar, gelatin or pectin-based candies such as jellies and gummies, Malic Acid is used to achieve a natural fruit flavor profile, uniform & controlled gelling, and good product clarity.

Powdered Mixes
In iced tea, sports drink, or fruit soup dry mixes, Malic Acid is preferred due to its rapid dissolution rate and flavor enhancement qualities. 
Since Malic Acid provides more sourness than Citric Acid, less acidulant is required and unit weight can be reduced.

Calcium Supplements and Calcium-fortified Beverages
In liquid calcium supplements, Malic Acid adds a tart and fruity flavor while controlling the pH and improving the solubility and bio-availability.

Low Calorie Beverages
Malic Acid’s extended sourness masks sweetener aftertaste and its blending and fixative abilities give a balanced taste profile.

Acidified Dairy Products
Whey-based protein beverages acidified with Malic Acid have enhanced fruit flavor with less noticeable whey flavor. 
Fruit flavored milk drinks made with fruit juice and acidified with Malic Acid have improved flavor and palatability.

Fruit Preparations and Preserves
Malic Acid enhances fruit flavors and creates a more natural flavor profile in jams, jellies, and fruit preparations. 
Fruit preparations are acidified with Malic Acid so that the fruit flavor stays strong, even when the fruit preparation is used in dairy products, frozen desserts or baked goods.

Malic Acid is an economical fruit flavor enhancer in sherbets and water ices. In gelled desserts, Malic Acid enhances fruit flavors and helps stabilize pH to control gel texture.

Bakery Products
Bakery products with fruit fillings (cookies, snack bars, pies, and cakes) have a stronger and more naturally balanced fruit flavor when the fruit filling includes Malic Acid.

Medical and Personal Care Products
In throat lozenges, cough syrups, and effervescent powdered preparations, Malic Acid enhances fruit flavor and can diminish the flavor impact of active components. 
As Malic Acid stimulates saliva flow, it can be used in tooth-cleaning preparations and mouthwashes. 
Germicidal compounds are used in combination with Malic Acid in soaps, mouthwashes, and toothpaste.

Acid-Based Facial Products
Malic Acid can be used in skin care products to rejuvenate and improve skin conditions.

Oil Field Applications
Demands for Malic Acid in the oil industry are rapidly increasing. 
The product is used to aid in the transfer of raw crude from the well to the refinery.

Gypsum Cement Retarders
Malic Acid is used in Gypsum cement to control the rate of setting of the cement by retardation.

Acrylic Fibre Production
Acrylic fibre whiteness is enhanced by the addition of Malic Acid during the manufacturing process and also helps in the control of polymerization reaction and prevents oxidation.

Electroplating Chemicals
Malic Acid is an important constituent in plating chemicals to maintain pH, improve and control the rate of deposition of active metals like nickel.

Dl-malic acid is primarily used for acidifiers in the food industry. 
Its other manufacturing applications include metal platings, specialty paints and dyes.

Dl-malic acid, which can be found in nature, is an essential acidifier for carbohydrate metabolism. 
Its acidity is about 20% higher than a similar acidifier, citric acid, which can provide a cost-saving effect. 
It also raises an a appetite because its taste is smooth and its sourness lasts for a longer time.

Malic Acid
Malic acid produces a sour taste in comparison with lactic acid and therefore most wine producers have turned to malolactic fermentation to produce “softer” wines through the accumulation of lactic acid

Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with pK values of 3.40 and 5.11. Malic acid has a smooth, tart taste that lingers in the mouth without imparting a burst of flavour. 
Malic acid is highly water soluble. 
It is inhibitory to yeasts, moulds and bacteria, probably due to its impact on pH (Doores, 1993). 
It is used in beverages, hard candies, canned tomatoes and fruit pie fillings.

Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5. 
It is a dicarboxylic acid that is made by all living organisms, contributes to the sour taste of fruits, and is used as a food additive. 
Malic acid has two stereoisomeric forms (L- and D-enantiomers), though only the L-isomer exists naturally. 
The salts and esters of malic acid are known as malates. The malate anion is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle.

Malic Acid
Malic acid (E296) is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid that is used as acidity regulator and flavor enhancer in food. 
It is often found in unripe fruit and is also present in wine. 
Malic acid levels in soft drinks, fruit juices and wine need to be strictly controlled as too low or high levels may result in product deterioration.
Together with tartaric acid, malic acid makes up about 90% of the total acidity of wine. 
Malic acid is also used as flavoring agent in the sour confectionary sector. 
Similar as the other organic acids, malic acid has been found to be an effective agent for inactivating common food pathogens on fresh vegetables.

Malic acid is often synthesized chemically starting from fumaric acid. 
However, the increasing cost of fumaric acid production and the quest for more eco-friendly techniques has triggered more research efforts into producing malic acid from sugars using microorganisms

Malic acid, with a worldwide consumption of 55,000 tons in 2006, is mostly used in the beverage (51%) and food (42%) industry and it shares a 10% market of the food and beverage industry mainly as an acidulant. 
Malic acid is widely used in fruit and vegetable juices, carbonated soft drinks, jams, wines, and candies by improving their sweetness or tartness. 
Malic acid is also used in the cosmetic industry mainly to adjust pH in a low concentration. 
Many cosmetic products, such as self-tanning cream, cleansing form and facial cream, contain malic acid as a pH controller. 
Its derivative, malic acid monolaurylamide, is also used as a skin care cleansing agent. 
As malic acid can diminish flavors of active chemicals, it is often included in the soaps, mouthwasher fluid, and toothpaste

Other names: Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; α-Hydroxysuccinic acid; Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid; Hydroxysuccinic acid; Pomalus acid; dl-Malic acid; Deoxytetraric acid; Kyselina hydroxybutandiova; Kyselina jablecna; Succinic acid, hydroxy-; Hydroxybutanedioic acid; (.+/-.)-Malic acid; 2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid; Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-; FDA 2018; Musashi-no-Ringosan; NSC 25941; R,S(.+/-.)-Malic acid; Apple acid (Salt/Mix)

Malic acid is generally used for the production of low-calorie beverages. 
It is a bit cheaper in comparison to citric acid and can replace citric acid in some flavored CBs. 
Malic acid enhances fruit flavors in soft drinks by prolonging their release and so the recipient cells are stimulated for a longer period of time, which is translated by the brain as a stronger fruit flavor. 
Malic acid provides more acidity per unit of weight than other acidulants used in carbonated soft drinks. 
The result is that the weight of the acidulant packages weighed previously is reduced. 
It can also provide cost savings and is recommended for use in beverage syrup (0.03%–0.90%) by dissolving after the addition benzoates, if used, have completely dissolved.
Despite its sinister sounding name, the word malic acid comes from the Latin word malum, which means apple. 
Malic acid was first isolated from apple juice in 1785, and it’s what gives some foods and drinks a tart taste. 
If you’re a fan of slightly acidic wine, malic acid probably played a huge role. 
It’s also a common ingredient in many hair and skin care products that include:

body lotions
nail treatments
acne and anti-aging products
Malic acid is part of a family of fruit acids, called alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs). Alpha hydroxy acids stimulate exfoliation by interfering with how your skin cells bond. 
As a result, dull skin is removed to make way for newer skin. Skin care products that contain malic acid can provide benefits that include:

skin hydration
exfoliation, or the removal of dead skin cells
improved skin smoothness and tone
reduction in wrinkles
Your body also produces malic acid naturally when converting carbohydrates into energy. Movement would be very difficult without malic acid. 
It’ll probably be no surprise that malic acid also has other health benefits too.

Malic acid
Malic acid (2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, C4H6O5) (Figure 9) is a white, odorless, crystalline solid. 
In contrast to other fruit acids, it is very hygroscopic and has a tendency to lump. 
Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid and has an asymmetric carbon and occurs as l(the natural)- and d-isomers.

Malic acid is an organic compound also known by the name of "apple acid" and "fruit acid", and it is contained in many prepared foods. 
This compound is found naturally in apple, and in particular in the skin, and other fruit. 
It is a so-called alpha-hydroxy organic acid, and it also present in many plant and animal species. 
This intermediate is the key element in the main cellular energy production cycle, the Krebs cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle). 
Malic acid is often present in the label of the food, but it is not dangerous or toxic to human health. Its purpose is to increase the acidity of food, giving more flavour, but it is also used as a flavouring substance and colour stabilizer. 
It is identified with the acronym E296. 
This acidifying compound is widely used in the food industry and it is generally obtained through a chemical synthesis. 
It is normally found in fruit juices - mostly of grape or apple - as well as in jellies, spreadable fruit, jams, wine and in some low calories foods. 
In nature, the malic acid is contained in foods such as prunes, currants, tomatoes and even bananas, in small quantities. 
This fruit acid is closely related to acid and it is characterized by a sour, bitter, strong and penetrating taste.

The malic acid in food provides a range of benefits as follows:
It supports the body in the release of energy from food;
It increases physical endurance of athletes and sportsmen;
It provides valuable support during the hypoxic phase of training;
It can relieve the symptoms of chronic fibromyalgia reducing pain.
For the reasons above, the consumption of food containing malic acid is highly recommended for people who practice sports at intense, competitive or professional level, since it is believed to increase the physical performance especially in cases of lack of oxygen in the cells.   
It can prolong sports performances especially when taken as a dietary supplement, during the hypoxic phases of the training.

Malic acid in food – safety
In terms of safety, we should remember that the malic acid in food can irritate eyes and skin, but it does not cause damage to health. 
On this point, Europe has not defined the reference values for the daily quantity ingested.

Malic Acid is an organic compound that is the active ingredient in many sour and tart foods. 
It can be blended with multiple food acids, sugars, high intensity sweeteners, flavors and seasonings to create distinctive taste experiences in foods, beverages, and confections.

Malic Acid is also used in the manufacture of skin and dental care products and can be used in a number of technical applications, such as Electroplating and metal cleaning.

Malic acid was first described by Sheele who, in 1785, isolated this acid from unripe apples. The name malic is from the Latin for apple, malum.

Malic acid is found in other fruits such as grapes, watermelons, cherries, and in vegetables such as carrots and broccoli. 
This acid is mainly used in food applications including candy and beverages. 
It gives a tart taste, lowers the pH, has antimicrobial effects, and confers special blending and flavor-fixing properties. 
There are also nonfood applications such as use for metal cleaning and finishing, textile finishing, electroless plating, pharmaceuticals, infusions, and paints.

The word 'malic' is derived from Latin 'mālum', meaning 'apple'. 
It is also the name of the genus Malus, which includes all apples and crabapples; and the origin of other taxonomic classifications such as Maloideae, Malinae, and Maleae. 
This derivation is also seen in the traditional German name for malic acid, 'Äpfelsäure' meaning 'apple acid' as well as in modern Greek, 'mēlicon oxy' (Μηλικόν οξύ), after the original European discovery of apples in modern-day Kazakhstan 2350 years ago by Alexander the Great's expeditionary foray into Asia

L-Malic acid is the naturally occurring form, whereas a mixture of L- and D-malic acid is produced synthetically.

Malate plays an important role in biochemistry. In the C4 carbon fixation process, malate is a source of CO2 in the Calvin cycle. 
In the citric acid cycle, (S)-malate is an intermediate, formed by the addition of an -OH group on the si face of fumarate. 
It can also be formed from pyruvate via anaplerotic reactions.

Malate is also synthesized by the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate in the guard cells of plant leaves. 
Malate, as a double anion, often accompanies potassium cations during the uptake of solutes into the guard cells in order to maintain electrical balance in the cell. 
The accumulation of these solutes within the guard cell decreases the solute potential, allowing water to enter the cell and promote aperture of the stomata.

In food
Malic acid was first isolated from apple juice by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1785.
Antoine Lavoisier in 1787 proposed the name acide malique, which is derived from the Latin word for apple, mālum—as is its genus name Malus.
In German it is named Äpfelsäure (or Apfelsäure) after plural or singular of the fruit apple, but the salt(s) Malat(e). 
Malic acid is the main acid in many fruits, including apricots, blackberries, blueberries, cherries, grapes, mirabelles, peaches, pears, plums, and quince and is present in lower concentrations in other fruits, such as citrus.
It contributes to the sourness of unripe apples. Sour apples contain high proportions of the acid. 
It is present in grapes and in most wines with concentrations sometimes as high as 5 g/l.
It confers a tart taste to wine; the amount decreases with increasing fruit ripeness. 
The taste of malic acid is very clear and pure in rhubarb, a plant for which it is the primary flavor. 
It is also a component of some artificial vinegar flavors, such as "salt and vinegar" flavored potato chips.

In citrus, fruits produced in organic farming contain higher levels of malic acid than fruits produced in conventional agriculture.

The process of malolactic fermentation converts malic acid to much milder lactic acid. 
Malic acid occurs naturally in all fruits and many vegetables, and is generated in fruit metabolism.

Malic acid, when added to food products, is denoted by E number E296. 
It is sometimes used with or in place of the less sour citric acid in sour sweets. 
These sweets are sometimes labeled with a warning stating that excessive consumption can cause irritation of the mouth. 
It is approved for use as a food additive in the EU,USand Australia and New Zealand (where it is listed by its INS number 296).

Malic acid provides 10 kJ (2.39 kilocalories) of energy per gram during digestion.

Production and main reactions
Racemic malic acid is produced industrially by the double hydration of maleic anhydride. 
In 2000, American production capacity was 5000 tons per year. 
Both enantiomers may be separated by chiral resolution of the racemic mixture, and the (S)- enantiomer may be specifically obtained by fermentation of fumaric acid.

Self-condensation of malic acid with fuming sulfuric acid gives the pyrone coumalic acid:

Coumalic Acid Synthesis
Malic acid was important in the discovery of the Walden inversion and the Walden cycle, in which (−)-malic acid first is converted into (+)-chlorosuccinic acid by action of phosphorus pentachloride. 
Wet silver oxide then converts the chlorine compound to (+)-malic acid, which then reacts with PCl5 to the (−)-chlorosuccinic acid. 
The cycle is completed when silver oxide takes this compound back to (−)-malic acid.

The production of quality wines requires a judicious balance between the sugar, acid and flavour components of wine. 
L-Malic and tartaric acids are the most prominent organic acids in wine and play a crucial role in the winemaking process, including the organoleptic quality and the physical, biochemical and microbial stability of wine. 
Deacidification of grape must and wine is often required for the production of well-balanced wines. 
Malolactic fermentation induced by the addition of malolactic starter cultures, regarded as the preferred method for naturally reducing wine acidity, efficiently decreases the acidic taste of wine, improves the microbial stability and modifies to some extent the organoleptic character of wine. 
However, the recurrent phenomenon of delayed or sluggish malolactic fermentation often causes interruption of cellar operations, while the malolactic fermentation is not always compatible with certain styles of wine. 
Commercial wine yeast strains of Saccharomyces are generally unable to degrade L-malic acid effectively in grape must during alcoholic fermentation, with relatively minor modifications in total acidity during vinification. 
Functional expression of the malolactic pathway genes, i.e. the malate transporter (mae1) of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the malolactic enzyme (mleA) from Oenococcus oeni in wine yeasts, has paved the way for the construction of malate-degrading strains of Saccharomyces for commercial winemaking.

Preferred IUPAC name
2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
Other names
Hydroxybutanedioic acid
2-Hydroxysuccinic acid
L-Malic acid
D-Malic acid
(–)-Malic acid
(+)-Malic acid
(S)-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
(R)-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
CAS Number: 617-48-1 

What Is It?
Malic acid is a tart-tasting organic dicarboxylic acid that contributes to the taste of many sour or tart foods such as apples. 
Sodium Malate is the sodium salt of Malic Acid. 
Malic Acid and Sodium Malate can be found in a wide range of cosmetics and personal care products.

Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products?
Malic Acid and Sodium Malate are used primarily to control the pH of cosmetic products.

Scientific Facts: 
Malic Acid is an organic acid which can be prepared by fermentation from natural sugars. 
The naturally occurring form of Malic Acid can be found in unripe apples and other fruits. 
Malic acid can make a wine taste tart, although the amount decreases with increasing fruit ripeness. 
The process of malolactic fermentation converts Malic Acid to much milder lactic acid.

(-)-Acide Malique, (+)-Acide Malique, Acide 2-Hydroxybutanédioïque, Acide malique, Acide (R)-Hydroxybutanédioïque, Acide (S)-Hydroxybutanédioïque, Ácido málico, (-)-Malic Acid, (+)-Malic Acid, (R)-Hydroxybutanedioic Acid, (S)-Hydroxybutanedioic Acid, 2-Hydroxybutanedioic Acid, D-Malic Acid, L-Malic Acid, Malic Acid, Malate.

Malic acid is a chemical found in certain fruits and wines. It is used to make medicine.

People take malic acid by mouth for tiredness and fibromyalgia.

In foods, malic acid is used as a flavoring agent to give food a tart taste.

In manufacturing, malic acid is used to adjust the acidity of cosmetics.

Malic acid is involved in the Krebs cycle. 
This is a process the body uses to make energy.

Malic acid is a 2-hydroxydicarboxylic acid that is succinic acid in which one of the hydrogens attached to a carbon is replaced by a hydroxy group. 
It has a role as a food acidity regulator and a fundamental metabolite. 
It is a 2-hydroxydicarboxylic acid and a C4-dicarboxylic acid. 
It derives from a succinic acid. It is a conjugate acid of a malate(2-) and a malate.
Malic acid in skin care products is celebrated for its ability to brighten the skin and smooth its texture. 
That’s why it’s a common ingredient in anti-aging creams.

According to a brain-skin connection studyTrusted Source, higher stress can worsen skin conditions like eczema, acne, and premature aging. 
And while wine can help reduce stress, external use of malic acid might be a healthier application.

Skin pH balance and hydration
Malic acid is also a humectant. 
It helps with moisture retention to help your skin stay hydrated.

A 2014 study about the hydration effects of aloe veraTrusted Source used malic acid, glucose, and a chemical compound in aloe vera (acemannan), as markers for fresh gel. 
Another small study also saw improvements in scales from old wounds after applying an ointment made of malic acid and petroleum jelly, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Malic acid is often used as an ingredient in cosmetics to balance pH levels. 
According to Bartek, a manufacturer that makes cosmetic and food grade chemicals, malic acid is more balanced than other fruit acids. 
It has a better buffer capacity than other AHAs like citric and lactic acid.

Having a better buffer capacity means that you can use more malic acid without upsetting your skin’s acid-base balance, or pH levels. 
If your skin’s pH level is unbalanced, then your skin’s protective barrier may be destabilized and more prone to dryness or acne.

Anti-aging and scar lightening
AHAs promote a high skin cell turnover rate. This means your skin cells are renewed more quickly, resulting in:

fewer fine lines and wrinkles
more even skin tone
smoother skin texture
decreased blemishes
“Malic acid at higher concentrations can also penetrate into lower levels of the skin to bring about new collagen formation,” says dermatologist Dr. Annie Chiu, director of the Derm Institute in California. Collagen is a protein that helps build and repair cells. 
It supports the skin and other body tissues’ strength and flexibility and prevents sagging. 
Collagen production slows down as you age, which is partly why skin loses its elasticity and firmness the older you get.

Using products with malic acid may increase collagen production and reduce signs of aging. 
Check out beauty blog ‘Hello Glow’ for three DIY (do it yourself) apple-based masks to rejuvenate your face, skin, and hair.

Acne prevention
Whether it’s in a lotion, cleanser, or light peeling agent, malic acid can help remove a buildup of dead cells. 
This is great for acne-prone skin. 
When the skin’s pores get clogged with too many dead skin cells and the skin’s natural oil (sebum), blackheads can form. 
Bacterial infections can also develop and cause breakouts.

“Malic acid breaks down the ‘glue’ that holds the dead skin cells together on the outer layer of the skin,” says Dr. Chiu. 
When these dead skin cells are swept away, “Your skin looks less dull and when your pores are unclogged, it helps reduce the formation of acne bumps and the discoloration that’s often associated with acne.”

While it sounds like a miracle cure, Dr. Chiu recommends sticking to low doses of malic acid. 
Unless your doctor recommends it, nonprescription skin care products will contain all the malic acid you need to fight breakouts or sagging skin. Higher doses, such as supplements, should only be taken if recommended by your doctor.

Help with fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia is a complex disorder that causes pain and fatigue in the muscles. Some research suggests that people with fibromyalgia also have a hard time producing malic acid. 
While there is little supporting evidence, two studies evaluated whether a combination of high doses of malic acid and magnesium helped reduce muscle pain and tenderness. 
One study was inconclusive, but suggested that the combination may be beneficial in high doses over a long period of time.

In the other study, people who took the malic acid and magnesium reported significant improvement within 48 hours of starting treatment. 
This continued for the full eight weeks of the study. After eight weeks of the active treatment dosage, some of the participants were given a placebo instead. 
People who took the placebo reported reoccurrence of muscle pain within 48 hours.

Unless your doctor recommends malic acid supplements, you should get all the malic acid your body needs from a healthy diet that includes plenty of fruits and vegetables.

Use with caution
Although malic acid is less irritating on the skin than other AHAs, it should still be used with caution. 
Malic acid can make your skin turn red, itch, or burn, especially around the eyes.

You may want to patch test a product before a complete application. 
To patch test, swab a small amount of product on your wrist or behind your ear. 
Then wait 24 hours to see how your skin reacts. 
If your skin begins to burn, wash off the product immediately. Seek medical attention if the irritation doesn’t go away after washing.

Also, inhaling malic acid is considered hazardous.

Malic acid is an AHA that occurs in fruits, vegetables, and wine. 
Our bodies also produce malic acid naturally when converting carbohydrates into energy. 
Many cosmetic companies use malic acid to balance the pH levels of the skin and increase moisture retention. 
Including malic acid in your skin care routine may help with skin concerns like aging, pigmentation, acne, or dryness. 
Just remember to patch test when trying out new products as malic acid can irritate the skin, especially around the eyes.

Some research also suggests that taking malic acid, with magnesium, is beneficial for people with muscle pain and fatigue. 
But always consult your doctor before taking supplements.

The global malic acid market reached a volume of 83.4 Kilotons in 2019. 
Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid made by all living organisms and has the molecular formula C4H6O5. 
It contributes to the sour and tart taste of foods and is found in nearly all fruits including apples, apricots, blackberries, grapes, peaches, plums, pears, strawberries and mangoes. 
The consumption of malic acid helps in detoxification, energy production, treating chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and improving overall muscle performance. 
It is extensively used in the food processing industry as it assists in increasing the shelf life of packaged food and bakery items. 
It also facilitates the preparation of bakery products, desserts, fruit juices, frozen specialties and sports drinks. 
Apart from this, malic acid finds applications in the detergent, health, and cosmetics and personal care industries.

Global Malic Acid Market Drivers:

In recent years, the growing use of malic acid for manufacturing sugarless confectioneries has escalated its demand among obese and diabetic people. 
Moreover, regulatory authorities such as the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) have approved the use of malic acid in food processing, thereby catalyzing its sales. Malic acid is also utilized as a substitute for citric acid and tartaric acid in the detergent industry, owing to its lower hygroscopicity and higher solubility. 
Apart from this, it is used as an ingredient in many cosmetic and personal care products as it has antioxidant properties which make the skin healthy and shiny. 
In the pharmaceutical industry, malic acid is used in the production of medical products including cough syrups, throat lozenges, toothpaste, mouthwash and health supplements such as protein shakes and nutrition bars. 
Looking forward, IMARC Group expects the global malic acid market to continue its moderate growth during the next five years.

Market Summary:

Based on the product types, the market has been segmented into L-malic acid, D-malic acid and DL-malic acid.
On the basis of applications, the market has been segregated into beverages, confectionery and food, personal care, and others. 
Currently, beverages represent the largest application segment since malic acid is used as a preferred acidulent in this segment.
Region-wise, Asia Pacific exhibits a clear dominance in the market. Other major regions include North America, Middle East and Africa, Latin America, and Europe.

(±)-Malic Acid
(±)-1-Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic Acid
(±)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid
1723539 [Beilstein]
210-514-9 [EINECS]
230-022-8 [EINECS]
2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
2-Hydroxy-succinic acid
2-Hydroxysuccinic Acid
617-48-1 [RN]
6915-15-7 [RN]
Acide malique [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
a-Hydroxysuccinic Acid
Apfelsäure [German]
Äpfelsäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy- [ACD/Index Name]
DL-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
DL-Malic acid
Kyselina hydroxybutandiova [Czech]
Malic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Malic acid, dl-
MFCD00064212 [MDL number]
R,S(±)-Malic acid
R,S(±)-Malic Acid
R,S-Malic acid
R,SMalic acid
(±)-1-Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid
(±)-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(±)-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(±)-Malic acid
(R)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(S)-(-)-Hydrosuccinic acid
(S)-(-)-Hydroxysuccinic acid
(S)-2-hydroxysuccinic acid
±-Malic acid
104596-63-6 [RN]
124501-05-9 [RN]
1723540 [Beilstein]
202-601-5 [EINECS]
2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid
2-Hydroxysuccinic acid|Malic Acid
41308-42-3 [RN]
481-74-3 [RN]
498-37-3 [RN]
52055-23-9 [RN]
6283-27-8 [RN]
6294-10-6 [RN]
676-46-0 [RN]
78644-42-5 [RN]
84781-39-5 [RN]
97-67-6 [RN]
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-, (±)-
d,l-malic acid
Deoxytetraric acid
DL-2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
DL-Apple acid
DL-hydroxysuccinic acid
DL-Malic acid;DL-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
Hydroxybutanedioic acid
Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid
hydroxysuccinic acid
hydroxy-succinic acid
Kyselina hydroxybutandiova
Kyselina jablecna [Czech]
Maslic acid
MFCD00004245 [MDL number]
MFCD00064213 [MDL number]
Oxaloacetate Ion
Pomalus acid
R,S(±)-Malic acid
Succinic acid, hydroxy-
α-Hydroxysuccinic acid
α-Hydroxysuccinic acid
苹果酸 [Chinese]

malic acid
DL-malic acid
2-Hydroxysuccinic acid
2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-
hydroxysuccinic acid
Kyselina jablecna
Deoxytetraric acid
hydroxybutanedioic acid
Pomalus acid
Malic acid, DL-
alpha-Hydroxysuccinic acid
dl-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
Caswell No. 537
Succinic acid, hydroxy-
R,S(+-)-Malic acid
2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid
Kyselina jablecna [Czech]
FDA 2018
(+-)-Malic acid
DL-2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
FEMA No. 2655
FEMA Number 2655
Kyselina hydroxybutandiova [Czech]
Malic acid [NF]
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 051101

CAS names
Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-

IUPAC names
2-Hydroxy butane diacid
2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-
DL - malic acid
DL-Malic Acid
DL-Malic acid
DL-malic acid
Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid
hydroxybutanedioic acid
hydroxylsuccinic acid

What Is Malic Acid Used for in Foods?
Malic acid is the tartness that is added to extremely sour candies and may be used in combination with citric acid in sour sweets as well. 
In carbonated drinks that are artificially sweetened, the addition of malic acid allows less use of the flavor additives. 
It is also used widely in non-carbonated beverages of all types, ciders and wines, acidified dairy products such as fruit flavored milk drinks, whey based protein drinks and soy milk.

If you consume confectioneries, hard or soft candy, chewing gum, fruit preserves and bakery products, you are most likely eating malic acid in the process.
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