1-9 A-D E-G H-M N-P Q-S T-Z

MALIC ACID(MALİK ASİT)

MALIC ACID
 
CAS Number:6915-15-7 
EC Number:210-514-9
 
 
synonyms:
calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-; Musashi-no-Ringosan; alpha-Hydroxysuccinic acid; E296; Monohydroxybernsteinsaeure; Succinic acid, hydroxy-; R,S(+-)-Malic acid; dl-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid; Kyselina jablecna [Czech]; FDA 2018; (+-)-Malic acid; Hydroxy Succinic Acid; FEMA Number 2655; Kyselina hydroxybutandiova [Czech]; Malic acid [NF];DL-Apple Acid; H2mal; Hydroxybutanedioic acid homopolymer; 2-Hydroxysuccinate; R,S-Malic acid; Racemic malic acid; R,S-Malate; ( )-Malic acid; ( C)-Malic acid; (+)-Malic acid;Opera_ID_805; 2-hydroxyl-succinic acid; DL-Malic acid, 99%; MALIC ACID,(DL); 2-Hydroxydicarboxylic acid; SCHEMBL856; Oprea1_130558; Oprea1_624131; KSC353M3D; DL-HYDROXYSUCOINIC ACID; AC1Q778R; Butanedioic acid, (.+-.)-; DL(+/-)-MALICACID; GTPL2480; DL-HYROXYBUTANEDIOIC ACID; CHEMBL1455497;Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; α-Hydroxysuccinic acid; Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid; Hydroxysuccinic acid; Pomalus acid; dl-Malic acid; Deoxytetraric acid; Kyselina hydroxybutandiova; Kyselina jablecna; Succinic acid, hydroxy-; Hydroxybutanedioic acid; (.+/-.)-Malic acid; 2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid; Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-; FDA 2018; Musashi-no-Ringosan; NSC 25941; R,S(.+/-.)-Malic acid; Apple acid (Salt/Mix); malic acid; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid ; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; 617-48-1malate; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; hydroxysuccinic acid; Deoxytetraric acid; hydroxybutanedioic acid; Pomalus acid; Malic acid, DL- alpha-Hydroxysuccinic acid; Hydroxybutandisaeure; dl-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; Caswell No. 537; Monohydroxybernsteinsaeure; Succinic acid, hydroxy-; R,S(+-)-Malic acid; 2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid; FDA 2018; (+-)-Malic acid; FEMA No. 2655; EINECS 210-514-9; EINECS 230-022-8; NSC 25941; (-)-Malic acid; (+-); Hydroxysuccinic acid; R,SMalate; DL-Apple Acid; Hydroxybutanedioic acid homopolymer; 2-Hydroxysuccinik asit; L-Malik asit; D-Malik asit; (-)-Malik asit; (+)-Malik asit; (S)-Hydroxybutanedioik asit; (R)-Hydroxybutanedioik asit; 2-Hydroxysuccinate; (+/-)-Malic acid; Opera_ID_805; 2-hydroxyl-succinic acid; malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite, Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-; calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-; Musashi-no-Ringosan; alpha-Hydroxysuccinic acid; E296; Monohydroxybernsteinsaeure; Succinic acid, hydroxy-; R,S(+-)-Malic acid; dl-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid; Kyselina jablecna [Czech]; FDA 2018; (+-)-Malic acid; Hydroxy Succinic Acid; FEMA Number 2655; Kyselina hydroxybutandiova [Czech]; Malic acid [NF];DL-Apple Acid; H2mal; Hydroxybutanedioic acid homopolymer; 2-Hydroxysuccinate; R,S-Malic acid; Racemic malic acid; R,S-Malate; ( )-Malic acid; ( C)-Malic acid; (+)-Malic acid;Opera_ID_805; 2-hydroxyl-succinic acid; DL-Malic acid, 99%; MALIC ACID,(DL); 2-Hydroxydicarboxylic acid; SCHEMBL856; Oprea1_130558; Oprea1_624131; KSC353M3D; DL-HYDROXYSUCOINIC ACID; AC1Q778R; Butanedioic acid, (.+-.)-; DL(+/-)-MALICACID; GTPL2480; DL-HYROXYBUTANEDIOIC ACID; CHEMBL1455497;Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; α-Hydroxysuccinic acid; Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid; Hydroxysuccinic acid; Pomalus acid; dl-Malic acid; Deoxytetraric acid; Kyselina hydroxybutandiova; Kyselina jablecna; Succinic acid, hydroxy-; Hydroxybutanedioic acid; (.+/-.)-Malic acid; 2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid; Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-; FDA 2018; Musashi-no-Ringosan; NSC 25941; R,S(.+/-.)-Malic acid; Apple acid (Salt/Mix); malic acid; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid ; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; 617-48-1malate; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; hydroxysuccinic acid; Deoxytetraric acid; hydroxybutanedioic acid; Pomalus acid; Malic acid, DL- alpha-Hydroxysuccinic acid; Hydroxybutandisaeure; dl-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; Caswell No. 537; Monohydroxybernsteinsaeure; Succinic acid, hydroxy-; R,S(+-)-Malic acid; 2-Hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid; FDA 2018; (+-)-Malic acid; FEMA No. 2655; EINECS 210-514-9; EINECS 230-022-8; NSC 25941; (-)-Malic acid; (+-); Hydroxysuccinic acid; R,SMalate; DL-Apple Acid; Hydroxybutanedioic acid homopolymer; 2-Hydroxysuccinik asit; L-Malik asit; D-Malik asit; (-)-Malik asit; (+)-Malik asit; (S)-Hydroxybutanedioik asit; (R)-Hydroxybutanedioik asit; 2-Hydroxysuccinate; (+/-)-Malic acid; Opera_ID_805; 2-hydroxyl-succinic acid; malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite, Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;




Malik asit
 
Malik asit özellikleri
 
Moleküler Formül: C4H6O5
Erime Noktası: 127-132 ° C
Moleküler Ağırlık: 134.09 g / mol
 
 
Malik asit
Malik asit
Genel Özellikleri
Kimyasal Adı 2-Hydroxybutanedioik asit
Diğer adlar Hydroxybutanedioik asit
2-Hydroxysuccinik asit
L-Malik asit
D-Malik asit
(-)-Malik asit
(+)-Malik asit
(S)-Hydroxybutanedioik asit
(R)-Hydroxybutanedioik asit
Moleküler formül C4H6O5
SMILES O=C(O)CC(O)C(=O)O
Aksi belirtilmedikçe, bilgiler standart durumdaki maddeler/malzemeler için verilmiştir (25 °C, 100 kPa)
Sorumluluk reddi ve kaynaklar
Malik asit bir türlü meyve asidi olup birçok meyve ve sebzede doğal olarak bulunan organik bir bileşiktir. Malik asidin binlerce yararı bulunmaktadır. Malik asit özellikle ekşimsi meyvelerde ve elmada bulunan bir bileşiktir.
 MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID
Malik asit Görünümü : Berrak, Renksiz
Malik asit Kimyasal Adı : Dikarboksilik Asit
Malik asit Kimyasal Formülü : C4H6O5
Ambalaj Şekli : 25 Kg lık Çuvallarda
Malik asit Tanımı ve Kullanım Alanları :
Malik asit, ilk olarak 1785 senesinde, bilim insanı Carl Wilhelm Scheele tarafından elmadan izole edilerek elde edilmiştir. 1787 senesinde ise, kimyager Antoine Lavoisier, bu aside Latince'de elma manasına geldiği için "malik asit" adını vermiştir. Maleik asitle karıştırılmamalıdır.
Malik asit bir çeşit meyve asididir. Birçok meyvede ve sebzede doğal olarak bulunur. Organik bir bileşiktir. Malik asidin yüzlerce yararı vardır. Malik asit, özellikle ekşimsi meyvelerde ve en çok elmada bulunur. Elma dışında, kayısı, muz, kiraz, üzüm, portakal kabuğu, brokoli, armut, erik, havuç, patates, taze fasulye gibi sebze ve meyvelerde de malik asit bulunur.
Malik asit, ticari anlamda maleik asit ve fumatik asitlerin katalizör varlığında hidrate edilmesiyle sentezlenir. Bu önemli asit, her canlının metabolizmasında yer bulur.
Malik asit, hayattaki canlı hücrelerin mitokondrilerinde bulunan enerji döngüsü olan Krebs döngüsünün mühim bir basamağıdır. Sahip olduğu özellikleri sayesinde sağlığa da çok faydalıdır.
Malik asit Kullanım Alanları
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;

Malik asit, E296 koduyla tanımlanır. Dünyadaki malik asit üretiminin yüzde 70'i yoğurtta katkı maddesi olarak, içeceklerde ise koruyucu olarak kullanılır.
Malik asidin en yaygın kullanım alanı içinde meyve lezzeti olan gıdalardır. Bunların başlıcaları, karbonatlı ve meyve lezzetli içecek ve şuruplardır.
Malik asit, elma, üzüm ve diğer meyve sularında da meyve suyunun rengini stabilize etmek için kullanılır. Malik asitin içeceklerdeki kullanımının bir diğer nedeni, kolay çözünmesi, damakta uzun süreli ve kalıcı etkide bir tat bırakması, farklı aromalarla uyumlu olmasıdır. Malik asidin meyve suyu konsantresine katılması, içeceğin doğal lezzetini de artırır. Ayrıca, askorbik asitle sinerjistik etki oluşturur. Böylece, bakır ve demirle stabil kompleks sağlayarak oksidasyonu da önler.
Malik asit kabartıcı ürünlerde de kullanılır. Başlıca nedeni yine kolay çözünmesidir. Bu ürünlerde, raf ömrünü artırma ve kalıcı tat verme nitelikleri sebebiyle tercih edilir.
Alkolsüz içeceklerin içeriğine de malik asit eklenir.
Sert şeker üretiminde, çiklet yapımında, reçel, jöle yapımında ve jelatinli tatlılarda da malik asit kullanılır. Malik asidin şekerin yapısındaki diğer bileşenlerle kolay etkileşim sağlaması, parlaklık ve berraklığı artırıcı etki göstermesi öncelikli tercih sebepleridir.
Malik asit, konserve ürünlerde ise pH kontrolünü sağladığı için kullanılır. Konserve ürünlerde malik asidin kullanılmasının bir diğer nedeni de esmerleşmesi geciktirmesidir. Domates konservelerinde asitlendirici olarak kullanılır.
Ekşi hamur üretiminde de malik asitten faydalanılır.
Malik asit diyet ürünlerin tatlandırıcı etkisini artırır. Aynı zamanda, damakta kalan tatlı tadın da önüne geçer.
Bira ve süt ürünlerinin üzerindeki tortu oluşumunu azalttığı için de malik asit tercih edilir.
Metal yüzeylerin temizliğinde malik asit güvenli ve sorunsuz şekilde uygulanabilir. Bu nedenle, temizleyici ürünlerin içeriğinde de malik asit kullanılır.
Malik asit, ilaç, boya ve metal sanayinde de yoğun şekilde kullanılır.
Malik Asit Nedir?
 MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;


Malik asit; bir tür meyve asiti olup; birçok meyve ve sebzede doğal olarak bulunan organik bir bileşiktir. Malik asit ve yararlarından bahsedecek olursak:Malik asit, bir çok olgunlaşmamış meyvede bulunan bir meyve asitidir ve elma, malik asitin en zengin kaynaklarından biridir. Hücre metabolizmasının en önemli bileşenlerinden biridir. Elma ve kiraz gibi sulu meyveleri ısırdığınızda hissettiğiniz hoş ve ferahlatıcı tat malik asit sayesindedir. Bu asitin birçok içecek ve şekerlemelerde kullanılabilen, diğer tatlandırıcılar ve çeşniler ile harmanlanmasını sağlayan akıcı ve kalıcı bir ekşimsi aroması vardır. Yiyecekler ve içeceklerdeki kullanımının dışında malik asitin sağlığa geniş yararları vardır.
Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;
 MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID
Malik Asitin Özellikleri:
Malik asit, ekşi meyvelerde doğal olarak bulunan bir asittir. Yaşayan canlı hücrelerin mitokondrilerinde yer alan bir enerji döngüsü olan Krebs döngüsünün, önemli bir ara basamağıdır. Malik asitin Sahip olduğu eşsiz özellikleri sayesinde sağlığa çok sayıda faydaları vardır.
Bunlardan bazıları şunlardır:
 
-Hoş ve kalıcı ekşimsi aroma
-Yüksek çözünürlük
-Düşük erime noktası
-Düşük higroskopik özellikleri
-Metal iyonları ile şelat yeteneği
-Harmanlanabilir olması
 
Malik Asitin Faydaları:
 
Malik asit, hücre metabolizmasında önemli bir rol oynar ve vücudun ATP elde etmesinde yardımcı olur. Enerji üretimi dışında malik asit; kasların yorgunluktan korunmasını, bazı metallerin toksik etkisinin azaltılmasını, ağız sağlığının korunmasını, bağışıklık sisteminin güçlendirilmesini, sinir, kas ve kalbin düzgün çalışmasını ve cildin sıkı ve pürünsüz görünmesini sağlar.

-Fibromiyalji ve Kronik Yorgunluk Sendromu:
Fibromiyalji, daha çok orta yaşlı kadınları etkileyen kronik bir hastalıktır. Fibromiyalji kas, tendon ve bağlardaki şiddetli ağrı ile ilişkili bir durumdur. Kas yorgunluğu ve enerji kaybı da bu duruma eşlik edebilir. Çeşitli çalışmalar kaslardaki yerel hipoksinin bu soruna neden olan esas sorumlu olduğunu göstermektedir. Hipoksi vücudun kas hücrelerine oksijen taşıma mekanizmasının normal çalışmasının bozulması olarak tanımlanabilir. Sonuç olarak, kas oldukça hızlı yorulur ve kas dokularının çalışması zorlaşır. Malik asit kas yorgunluğunu tersine çevirir ve böylece fibromiyalji ve kronik yorgunluk sendromu ile ilişkili belirtileri giderir ve kasların performansını artırır.Malik asit , Bu enerji düzeylerinin arttırılması ve kas aktivitlerinin geliştirilmesini sağlayarak kronik yorgunluk sendromu ve fibromiyalji hastalarının tedavisinde yardımcı olur.
 MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID
Vücutta toksik metallerin aşırı birikimi, ciddi sağlık sorunlarına yol açabilir. Bazı metallerin aşırı birikimi karaciğer hastalıkları ve beyin hastalıkları gibi ciddi sorunlara neden olabilir. Malik asit iyi bir şelat yapıcıdır ve vücutta birikebilen alüminyum ya da kurşun gibi potansiyel toksik metallere bağlama yeteneğine sahiptir. Sonuç olarak, metalik toksinler inaktive edilir ve bunların sağlık açısından riskleri azalır.
 
-Ağız Hijyeni:
Malik asit ağız hijyenini korumaya yardımcı olur.Malik asit Ağızda mikropları tutmaya yardımcı olan bir antiseptik gibi davranır ve enfeksiyon riskini azaltır. Malik asit Ağızda dolaşan zararlı bakterilerin sayısını azaltır ve tükürük üretimini uyarır. Bu da malik asitin birçok diş macunu ve ağız gargarasının en popüler maddesi olmasını açıklar.
 
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;
MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID
-Sağlıklı cilt:
Malik asit Ciltte kırışıklık ve ince çizgileri soldurarak yaşlanma belirtilerini azaltmaya yardımcı olur ve cildin genç ve sağlıklı görülmesini sağlar. Doğal bir yüz peelingi gibi davranır. Cildinize ince elma dilimleri uygulayın ve sonuçlarını kendiniz görün!ancak malik asitin deri döküntüsü, ürtiker ya da şişme gibi bazı yan etkileri olabilir. Orta miktarlarda alındığı takdirde gayet güvenlidir. Fazla alınan her şey gibi bazı yan etkilere neden olabilir ve bu nedenle malik asit takviyeleri kullanmadan önce bir tıp uzmanının tavsiyesini almanız çok önemlidir. Önerilen doz ve yönergeleri izleyerek malik asitin yararlarından faydalanın.
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;
MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID
Malik asit, günlük olarak yediğimiz yiyeceklerin bir bileşenidir. Çeşitli meyvelerde doğal olarak oluşan bir organik bileşik olarak bulunmasına rağmen, birçoğu genel sağlıklarını arttırmak için çeşitli asit hastalıklarını tedavi etmek için malik asit takviyeleri almayı tercih etmektedir. Günümüzde asit, en yaygın olarak bir gıda katkı maddesi ve koruyucu olarak kullanılmaktadır. Uygun miktarlarda kullanıldığında, yumuşak ve nispeten zararsız bir asittir. Bir gıda takviyesi olarak, genel olarak sağlık için yararlı olarak kabul edilir ve elma sularında büyük miktarlarda bulunur. Bununla birlikte, herhangi bir ek aldığınız zaman, tüketim için tavsiye edilen miktarları aşmamalısınız.
MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID 

Malik Asitin Faydaları
 
Malik asit in En sık görülen faydalarından biri, ağrıyı azaltmaya yardımcı olmasıdır. Bu nedenle sıklıkla fibromiyalji ve kronik yorgunluk sisteminden muzdarip olanlar tarafından Malik asit kullanılır. Bu nedenle onu alan kişiler kas ağrılarını ve acıyı azaltmışlardır. Eklemenin tam etki göstermesi için birkaç günlük tutarlı tüketim gerektirse de, ilk ekinizden sonra ağrınızı 48 saat kadar hızlı bir şekilde azaltmaya başlayabilir.
En popüler spor takviyeleri, dayanıklılık, dayanıklılık, iyileşme kabiliyetiniz ve motivasyonunuz açısından performansınızı doğal olarak ve güvenli bir şekilde artıranlardır. Malik asit, bu tür takviyelerde, yorgunluğu önlemek ve dayanıklılığınızı arttırmak için yaygın olarak bulunur.
MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID 

Malik Asit İçeren Gıdalar
 
Yüksek malik asit içeriği ile en iyi bilinen gıda, elmadır. Malik asit in çok yoğun olduğu diğer meyveler nektarin, kiraz, lyche, muz, mango, şeftali, domates ve çöreklerdir. Malik asit Bununla birlikte, neredeyse tüm meyvelerde bulunabilir.
MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID 

Malik asit ayrıca birçok içecek ve şekerleme için bir lezzet arttırıcı olarak kullanılır. Özellikle diyet sodalarında ve diğer yapay olarak tatlandırılmış içeceklerde yaygındır. Bu, sakız ve diğer sakızlı şekerler gibi yapay olarak tatlandırılmış şekerlemeler için de geçerlidir. Çok yönlü doğası nedeniyle, özellikle doğal olmayan tatlandırıcıların maskelenmesinde, alternatif tatlandırıcılar içeren neredeyse tüm gıda ürünlerinin önemli bir parçası haline gelmiştir.
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;

Gıda takviyesi ve cilt bakım maddesi olarak malik asit ile ilgili en büyük şeylerden biri, tamamen doğal ve organik bir bileşik olmasıdır. Vücudunuzun ve cildinizin sağlığını geliştirmek için insan yapımı ürünlere güvenmek yerine, çeşitli amaçlar için doğal bir alternatif sunar. Kronik yorgunluğunuzu, fibromiyaljinizi veya sadece kuru cildinizi tedavi ediyor olun, bu asit güvenli ve kolayca bulunabilen bir çözümdür. Güçlü ağrı giderici ve iyileştirici özellikleri nedeniyle, birçok hasta için çeşitli hastalıkların tedavisinde çok popüler ve uygulanabilir bir çözüm haline gelmiştir. Bu sadece genel güvenliği ile güçlendirilmiştir.
Malik asit in Yan etkiler
Malik asit Genel olarak çok güvenli ve etkili bir destek olarak görülse de, bazı yan etkiler de olabilir. Bunlardan en yaygın olanı, rahatsız edici olmakla birlikte, sadece eki kullananların az bir kısmı tarafından yaşanmaktadır. En sık görülen yan etkiler kas ağrısı, bulantı, kızarıklık, kabızlık, şişmiş cilt, göğüs ağrısı ve kaşıntıdır. Sıkıcı olsa da, bunlar genellikle birkaç gün sonra dağılır.
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;
MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID
Yan etkilerin çoğu nispeten küçük olsa da, çok nadir olan bazı daha ciddi yan etkiler de vardır. Bu ciddi yan etkiler, çoğu zaman aşırı göğüs gerginliği gibi küçük meslektaşlarının daha ciddi biçimleridir. Bu ayrıca, solunum zorluğuna veya tamamen kapalı bir boğaza yol açabilen alerjik reaksiyon gibi tehlikeli olayları da içerir. Bunlardan herhangi birini yaşıyorsanız hemen tıbbi yardım alın.
Malik asit, moleküler formül C4H6O5 olan organik bir bileşiktir. Tüm canlı organizmalar tarafından yapılan, meyvelerin ekşi tadına katkıda bulunan ve bir gıda katkı maddesi olarak kullanılan bir dikarboksilik asittir. Malik asit iki stereoizomerik forma sahiptir (L- ve D-enantiyomerler), ancak doğal olarak sadece L-izomeri vardır. Malik asit tuzları ve esterleri malatlar olarak bilinir. Malat anyon, sitrik asit döngüsünde bir ara maddedir.
 
 
etimoloji
'Malik' kelimesi 'elma' anlamına gelen Latince 'malus' kelimesinden türetilmiştir. Aynı zamanda tüm elmaları ve crabapples'i içeren Malus cinsinin adıdır; ve Maloideae, Malinae ve Maleae gibi diğer taksonomik sınıflandırmaların kökeni. Bu derivasyon, aynı zamanda, modern elmaların orijinal Avrupa keşfinden sonra, 'elma asidi' anlamına gelen 'Äpfelsäure' anlamına gelen geleneksel Alman adında olduğu gibi, modern Yunancada, 'elma' oksi '(Μηλικόν οξύ) -Gün Kazakistan 2350 yıl önce Büyük İskender'in seferi Asya'ya kaçıyor.
 MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID
 
biokimya
L-Malik asit doğal olarak oluşan formdur, oysa L- ve D-malik asit karışımı sentetik olarak üretilir.
 
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;
MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID

L-Malik asit
D-Malik asit
Malat biyokimyada önemli bir rol oynar. C4 karbon fiksasyon işleminde malat, Calvin döngüsünde bir CO2 kaynağıdır. Sitrik asit döngüsünde (S) -malat, fumaratın si yüzüne bir -OH grubunun ilave edilmesiyle oluşturulan bir ara maddedir. Ayrıca anaplerotik reaksiyonlar yoluyla piruvattan da oluşturulabilir.
 
Malat ayrıca bitki yapraklarının koruma hücrelerinde fosfoenolpiruvatın karboksilasyonu ile sentezlenir. Çift anyon olarak malat, hücrede elektrik dengesini korumak için koruyucu hücrelerin içine çözünen maddelerin alınması sırasında sıklıkla potasyum katyonlarına eşlik eder. Bu çözünenlerin bekçi hücre içinde birikmesi çözünen potansiyelini azaltır, suyun hücreye girmesine ve stomanın açıklığını arttırmasına izin verir.
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;
MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID
Yemeğin içinde
Malik asit ilk olarak 1785 yılında elma suyundan Carl Wilhelm Scheele tarafından izole edildi. [3] 1787'de Antoine Lavoisier, elma için Latince kelime olan mālum-as cinsi Malus olan türk asidi malique adını önerdi. [4] [5] Almancada, meyve elmasının çoğul veya tekilinden sonra Äpfelsäure (veya Apfelsäure), ancak tuz (lar) Malat (e) olarak adlandırılır. Malik asit, kayısı, böğürtlen, yaban mersini, kiraz, üzüm, mirabell, şeftali, armut, erik ve ayva gibi birçok meyvede ana asittir ve narenciye gibi diğer meyvelerde daha düşük konsantrasyonlarda bulunur. [7 ] Olgunlaşmamış elmaların ekşiliğine katkıda bulunur. Ekşi elmalar yüksek oranda asit içerir. Üzümlerde ve bazen 5 g / l kadar yüksek konsantrasyonlarda şarapların çoğunda bulunur. [8] Şaraba ekşi bir tat verir; artan meyve olgunluğu ile miktar azalır. Malik asidin tadı, birincil lezzet olduğu bir bitki olan raventte çok açık ve saftır. Aynı zamanda, "tuz ve sirke" aromalı patates cipsi gibi bazı yapay sirke tatlarının bir bileşenidir. [9]
 MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID
Narenciye alanında organik tarımda üretilen meyveler, geleneksel tarımda üretilen meyvelerden daha yüksek seviyelerde malik asit içerir. [7]
Malolaktik fermantasyon süreci, malik asidi daha hafif laktik aside dönüştürür. Malik asit tüm meyvelerde ve birçok sebzede doğal olarak bulunur ve meyve metabolizmasında üretilir. [10]
Malik asit, gıda ürünlerine eklendiğinde, E numarası E296 ile gösterilir. Malik asit, Birleşik Devletler tarafından üretilen aşırı şekerleme denilen aşırı şekerlemenin kaynağıdır. Ekşi tatlılarda daha az ekşi sitrik asit ile veya bunun yerine kullanılır. Bu tatlılar bazen aşırı tüketimin ağızda tahrişe neden olabileceğini belirten bir uyarı ile etiketlenir. AB, [11] ABD [12] ve Avustralya ve Yeni Zelanda [13] 'de (INS numarası 296 ile listelenmiştir) bir gıda katkı maddesi olarak kullanım için onaylanmıştır.
Malik asit, sindirim sırasında gram başına 10 kJ (2.39 Kalori) enerji sağlar. [14]
MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID 
Üretim ve ana reaksiyonlar
Rasemik malik asit, maleik anhidritin çift hidrasyonu ile endüstriyel olarak üretilir. 2000 yılında Amerikan üretim kapasitesi yılda 5000 ton idi. Her iki enantiyomer, rasemik karışımın kiral çözünürlüğü ile ayrılabilir ve (S) - enantiomer, fumarik asidin fermantasyonu ile spesifik olarak elde edilebilir. [15]
 
Malik asidin dumanlı sülfürik asit ile kendi kendine yoğunlaşması pirone koumalik asidi verir: [16]
MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID 
Koumalik Asit Sentezi
Malik asit, (-) - malik asidin önce fosfor pentaklorürün etkisiyle (+) - klorosukinik aside dönüştürüldüğü Walden inversiyonu ve Walden döngüsünün keşfinde önemliydi. Islak gümüş oksit daha sonra klor bileşiğini (+) - malik aside dönüştürür; bu daha sonra PC1 ile (-) - klorosukinik aside reaksiyona girer. Gümüş oksit bu bileşiği (-) - malik aside geri aldığında döngü tamamlanır.
MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID
 
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;


MALIC ACID
Malic acid
 
Properties of malic acid
 
Molecular Formula: C4H6O5
Melting Point: 127-132 °C
Molecular Weight: 134.09 g/mol
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;

 

Malic acid is a component of many of the foods that we eat daily. Although it is found as a naturally occurring organic compound in various fruits, many choose to take malic acid supplements to increase their overall health, as well as treat various maladies. Today, the acid is most commonly used as a food additive and preservative. It is a mild and relatively harmless acid when used in appropriate amounts. As a food supplement, it is generally considered beneficial for health and is present in large amounts in apple juices. As when taking any supplement, however, you should not exceed the recommended amounts for consumption.
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;

Benefits of Malic Acid
One of its most commonly touted benefits is its ability to help reduce pain. For this reason, it is frequently used by those who suffer from fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue system. Those who take it for this reason have reported reduced muscle soreness and pain. Although it takes several days of consistent consumption for the supplement to take full effect, it can start to reduce pain as quickly as 48 hours after your first supplement.
The most popular sporting supplements are those that naturally and safely improve your performance in terms of endurance, stamina, your ability to recoverand your motivation. Malic acid is commonly found in such supplements for its capacity to ward off fatigue and boost your endurance.
Foods Containing Malic Acid
The food that is most well known for its high malic acid content is the apple. Other fruits with a very high concentration of the acid are nectarines, cherries, lychees, bananas, mangoes, peaches, tomatoes and strawbesrries. It can be found, however, in nearly all fruits.
Malic acid is also used as a flavor enhancer for many drinks and candies. It is especially common in diet sodas and other artificially sweetened drinks. This is also true of artificially sweetened candies, such as gum and other gummy candies. Because of its highly versatile nature, especially in masking unnatural flavors, it has become an important part of nearly any food product that contains alternative sweeteners.
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;


One of the greatest things about malic acid as both a food supplement and a skincare agent is the fact that it is a completely natural, organic compound. Rather than relying on man-made products to improve the health of your body and skin, it provides a natural alternative for a variety of purposes. Whether you are treating your chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia or just some dry skin, this acid is a safe and readily available solution. Because of its powerful pain relieving and healing properties, it has become a very popular, and viable solution for many people in the treatment of their various maladies. This has only been amplified by its overall safety.
Side Effects
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;
MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID
Although generally regarded as a very safe and effective supplement, there can be some minor side effects. The most common of these, while uncomfortable, are only experienced by a small number of those who use the supplement. The side effects most frequently experienced include muscle pain, nausea, redness, constipation, swollen skin, chest pain and itching. While annoying, these typically dissipate after a couple days.
While most of the side effects are relatively minor, there are also some more serious side effects, which are very rare. These serious side effects are often more serious forms of their minor counterparts, such as extreme chest tightness. This also includes dangerous events such as allergic reaction, which can lead to difficulty breathing or a completely closed throat. If you experience any of these, seek medical help immediately.
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;
MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID
Not to be confused with maleic acid or malonic acid.
"Malate" redirects here. For the district in Manila, see Malate, Manila.
Malic acid
Skeletal structure
Ball-and-stick model
Sample of racemic malic acid.jpg
DL-Malic acid
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
Other names
Hydroxybutanedioic acid
2-Hydroxysuccinic acid
L-Malic acid
D-Malic acid
(-)-Malic acid
(+)-Malic acid
(S)-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
(R)-Hydroxybutanedioic acid

Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;

Identifiers
CAS Number
617-48-1 ☒
6915-15-7 ☒
3D model (JSmol)
Interactive image
ChEBI 
CHEBI:6650 ☑
ChEMBL 
ChEMBL1455497 ☒
ChemSpider 
510 ☑
83793 D-(+)-malic acid ☑
193317 L-(-)-malic acid ☑
ECHA InfoCard 100.027.293
EC Number 
230-022-8
E number E296 (preservatives)
IUPHAR/BPS
2480
KEGG 
C00149 ☒
PubChem CID
525
UNII 
817L1N4CKP ☑
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
DTXSID0027640 Edit this at Wikidata
Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;

InChI[show]
SMILES[show]
Properties
Chemical formula
C4H6O5
Molar mass 134.087 g·mol-1
Density 1.609 g⋅cm-3
Melting point 130 °C (266 °F; 403 K)
Solubility in water
558 g/L (at 20 °C)[1]
Acidity (pKa) pKa1 = 3.40
pKa2 = 5.20[2]
Related compounds
Other anions
Malate
Related carboxylic acids
Succinic acid
Tartaric acid
Fumaric acid
Related compounds
Butanol
Butyraldehyde
Crotonaldehyde
Sodium malate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references
Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5. It is a dicarboxylic acid that is made by all living organisms, contributes to the sour taste of fruits, and is used as a food additive. Malic acid has two stereoisomeric forms (L- and D-enantiomers), though only the L-isomer exists naturally. The salts and esters of malic acid are known as malates. The malate anion is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle.
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;

 
Etymology
The word 'malic' is derived from Latin 'malus', meaning 'apple'. It is also the name of the genus Malus, which includes all apples and crabapples; and the origin of other taxonomic classifications such as Maloideae, Malinae, and Maleae. This derivation is also seen as well as in the traditional German name for malic acid, 'Äpfelsäure' meaning 'apple acid' as well as in modern Greek, 'mēlicon oxy' (Μηλικόν οξύ), after the original European discovery of apples in modern-day Kazakhstan 2350 years ago by Alexander the Great's expeditionary foray into Asia.
Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;
 
Biochemistry
L-Malic acid is the naturally occurring form, whereas a mixture of L- and D-malic acid is produced synthetically.
 
 MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID

L-Malic acid
 
 
D-Malic acid
Malate plays an important role in biochemistry. In the C4 carbon fixation process, malate is a source of CO2 in the Calvin cycle. In the citric acid cycle, (S)-malate is an intermediate, formed by the addition of an -OH group on the si face of fumarate. It can also be formed from pyruvate via anaplerotic reactions.
 MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID
Malate is also synthesized by the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate in the guard cells of plant leaves. Malate, as a double anion, often accompanies potassium cations during the uptake of solutes into the guard cells in order to maintain electrical balance in the cell. The accumulation of these solutes within the guard cell decreases the solute potential, allowing water to enter the cell and promote aperture of the stomata.
 
In food
Malic acid was first isolated from apple juice by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1785.[3] Antoine Lavoisier in 1787 proposed the name acide malique, which is derived from the Latin word for apple, mālum-as is its genus name Malus.[4][5] In German it is named Äpfelsäure (or Apfelsäure) after plural or singular of the fruit apple, but the salt(s) Malat(e). Malic acid is the main acid in many fruits, including apricots, blackberries, blueberries, cherries, grapes, mirabelles, peaches, pears, plums, and quince[6] and is present in lower concentrations in other fruits, such as citrus.[7] It contributes to the sourness of unripe apples. Sour apples contain high proportions of the acid. It is present in grapes and in most wines with concentrations sometimes as high as 5 g/l.[8] It confers a tart taste to wine; the amount decreases with increasing fruit ripeness. The taste of malic acid is very clear and pure in rhubarb, a plant for which it is the primary flavor. It is also a component of some artificial vinegar flavors, such as "salt and vinegar" flavored potato chips.[9]
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;
MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID
In citrus, fruits produced in organic farming contain higher levels of malic acid than fruits produced in conventional agriculture.[7]
The process of malolactic fermentation converts malic acid to much milder lactic acid. Malic acid occurs naturally in all fruits and many vegetables, and is generated in fruit metabolism.[10]
Malic acid, when added to food products, is denoted by E number E296. Malic acid is the source of extreme tartness in United States-produced confectionery, the so-called extreme candy. It is also used with or in place of the less sour citric acid in sour sweets. These sweets are sometimes labeled with a warning stating that excessive consumption can cause irritation of the mouth. It is approved for use as a food additive in the EU,[11] US[12] and Australia and New Zealand[13] (where it is listed by its INS number 296).
Malic acid provides 10 kJ (2.39 Calories) of energy per gram during digestion.[14]
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;
MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID
Production and main reactions
Racemic malic acid is produced industrially by the double hydration of maleic anhydride. In 2000, American production capacity was 5000 tons per year. Both enantiomers may be separated by chiral resolution of the racemic mixture, and the (S)- enantiomer may be specifically obtained by fermentation of fumaric acid.[15]
 
Self-condensation of malic acid with fuming sulfuric acid gives the pyrone coumalic acid:[16]
MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID 
Coumalic Acid Synthesis
Malic acid was important in the discovery of the Walden inversion and the Walden cycle, in which (-)-malic acid first is converted into (+)-chlorosuccinic acid by action of phosphorus pentachloride. Wet silver oxide then converts the chlorine compound to (+)-malic acid, which then reacts with PCl5 to the (-)-chlorosuccinic acid. The cycle is completed when silver oxide takes this compound back to (-)-malic acid.
 
 
See also
Acids in wine
Crassulacean acid metabolism
Malate-aspartate shuttle
 
 
The Health Benefits of Malic Acid
Malic acid is a substance found naturally in apples and pears. It's considered an alpha-hydroxy acid, a class of natural acids commonly used in skin-care products. Also sold in dietary supplement form, malic acid is said to offer a variety of benefits.
 MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID
Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;


Health Benefits
Malic acid is found in fruits and vegetables and is produced naturally in the body when carbohydrates are converted into energy. While some research suggests that malic acid supplements may help people with certain conditions, high-quality clinical trials are needed.
 
There's some evidence that malic acid supplements may offer these benefits:
 
Skin-Care Benefits
When applied to the skin, malic acid is said to reduce signs of aging, remove dead skin cells, aid in the treatment of acne, and promote skin hydration.
 
A number of early studies published in the 1990s and early 2000s indicate that malic acid may be beneficial when applied to the skin. In tests on animals and human cells, the studies' authors found that malic acid may help increase collagen production and reverse sun-induced signs of skin aging.
Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;


More recent research on topically applied malic acid includes a small study published in the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology in 2013.1 For the study, researchers assigned people with melasma (a common disorder marked by patches of abnormally dark skin) to a skin-care regimen that included the use of topical vitamin C and malic acid. At an average follow-up of 26 months, the regimen was found to be an effective short-term treatment for melasma.
 
 

Physical Performance
Malic acid is also used to boost sports performance when taken in supplement form. It is sometimes combined with creatine supplements in order to improve the body's absorption of creatine. Proponents claim that malic acid can promote energy production, increase exercise endurance, and help fight off muscle fatigue.
 
 

For a study published in Acta Physiologica Hungarica in 2015, researchers investigated the effectiveness of a creatine-malate supplement in sprinters and long-distance runners.2 After six weeks of supplementation combined with physical training, there was a significant increase in the physical performance in sprinters, measured by peak power, total work, body composition, and elevated growth hormone levels. In long-distance runners, there was a significant increase in distance covered.
 
 
Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;

Kidney Stones
 
Malic acid is a precursor to citrate, a substance believed to prevent calcium from binding with other substances in urine that form kidney stones. Citrate may also prevent crystals from getting bigger by preventing them from sticking together.
 

According to a preliminary laboratory study published in 2014, malic acid consumption may increase urine pH and citrate levels, making stone formation less likely. The study authors concluded that malic acid supplementation may be useful for the conservative treatment of calcium kidney stones.3
 
In a 2016 review, scientists suggested that given the high malic acid content in pears, future research should explore whether a diet supplemented with pears and low in meat and sodium may reduce stone formation.4
 
Fibromyalgia
A pilot study published in the Journal of Rheumatology in 1995 found that taking malic acid in combination with magnesium helped alleviate pain and tenderness in people with fibromyalgia.5
 
For the study, researchers assigned 24 people with fibromyalgia to treatment with either a placebo or a combination of malic acid and magnesium. After six months, those treated with the malic acid/magnesium combination showed a significant improvement in pain and tenderness. However, there's a lack of more recent research on malic acid's effectiveness as a fibromyalgia treatment.
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;

Dry Mouth
The use of a one percent oral malic acid spray has been explored as a treatment for dry mouth. A study published in Depression and Anxiety, for instance, evaluated a one percent malic acid spray compared to a placebo in people with dry mouth resulting from antidepressant use.6 After two weeks of using the sprays when needed, those using the malic acid spray had improved dry mouth symptoms and increased saliva flow rates.
 
 
Possible Side Effects
Due to a lack of research, little is known about the safety of long-term or regular use of malic acid supplements. However, there's some concern that intake of malic acid may trigger certain side effects such as headaches, diarrhea, nausea, and allergic reactions.
 
Although malic acid is generally considered safe when applied to the skin in the recommended amount, some people may experience irritation, itching, redness, and other side effects. It's a good idea to patch test new products.
In addition, alpha-hydroxy acids are known to increase your skin's sensitivity to sunlight.7 Therefore, it's important to use sunscreen in combination with skin-care products containing any type of alpha-hydroxy acid.
Keep in mind that malic acid shouldn't be used as a substitute for standard care. Self-treating a condition and avoiding or delaying standard care may have serious consequences.
 
Dosage and Preparation
There is no standard dose of malic acid that is recommended. Various doses have been used with adults in studies to investigate the treatment of different conditions.
 
For example, for fibromyalgia, a product called Super Malic (malic acid 1200 mg and magnesium hydroxide 300 mg) was taken twice daily for six months.
For acne, a cream containing malic acid and arginine glycolate was applied twice daily for 60 days. And lastly, for dry mouth, a mouth spray containing 1 percent malic acid, 10 percent xylitol, and 0.05 percent fluoride was used up to eight times daily for two weeks.
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;


The appropriate dose for you may depend on how you are using the supplement, your age, gender, and medical history. Speak to your healthcare provider for personalized advice.
 
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;

What to Look For
Malic acid is found naturally in fruits including apricots, blackberries, blueberries, cherries, grapes, peaches, pears, and plums. Malic acid is also found in some citrus fruits.
 
In food, malic acid may be used to acidify or flavor foods or prevent food discoloration. It may also be used with other ingredients in cosmetics.
Using malic acid as part of your skin care routine may help with concerns such as pigmentation, acne, or skin aging. But keep in mind that it's a good idea to patch test when using new products and to avoid the eye area.
If you choose to take a malic acid supplement, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) offers tips to consumers. The organization recommends that you look for a Supplement Facts label on the product. This label will contain vital information including the amount of active ingredients per serving, and other added ingredients.
 
Lastly, the organization suggests that you look for a product that contains a seal of approval from a third party organization that provides quality testing. These organizations include U.S. Pharmacopeia, ConsumerLab.com, and NSF International. A seal of approval from one of these organizations does not guarantee the product's safety or effectiveness but it does provide assurance that the product was properly manufactured, contains the ingredients listed on the label, and does not contain harmful levels of contaminants.
Overview Information
Malic acid is a chemical found in certain fruits and wines. It is sometimes used as medicine.
 
Malic acid is used most commonly for dry mouth. It is also used for fibromyalgia, fatigue, and skin conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these other uses.
In foods, malic acid is used as a flavoring agent to give food a tart taste.
In manufacturing, malic acid is used to adjust the acidity of cosmetics.
 
How does it work?
Malic acid is involved in the Krebs cycle. This is a process the body uses to make energy. Malic acid is sour and acidic. This helps to clear away dead skin cells when applied to the skin. Its sourness also helps to make more saliva to help with dry mouth.
Uses & Effectiveness?
Possibly Effective for
Dry mouth. Using a mouth spray containing a malic acid seems to improve symptoms of dry mouth better than using a saline mouth spray.
Insufficient Evidence for
Acne. Early research shows that applying an alpha hydroxy acid cream containing malic acid helps reduce signs of acne in some people.
Fibromyalgia. Taking malic acid in combination with magnesium seems to reduce pain and tenderness caused by fibromyalgia.
Fatigue.
Warts.
Scaly, itchy skin (psoriasis).
Aging skin.
Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of malic acid for these uses.
Side Effects & Safety
When taken by mouth: Malic acid is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in food amounts. Malic acid is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth as a medicine.
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;

 
When applied to the skin: There isn't enough reliable information to know if malic acid is safe. It might cause side effects such as skin and eye irritation.
Special Precautions & Warnings:
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Malic acid is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in food amounts. There isn't enough reliable information to know if malic acid is safe to use as medicine when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid in amounts greater than what is normally found in food.
 Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-Hydroxy butane diacid, 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, Apfelsäure, Butanedioic Acid, Hydroxy , Butanedioic acid, hydroxy- , DL - malic acid , DL-MALIC ACID , Hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid, Hydroxybutan-1,4-dicarbonsäure, hydroxybutanedioic acid, hydroxylsuccinic acid, L-Äpfelsäure , malik asit; malic acit; malic acid; malic acide; malik asid; acide malique; acide maleique; l'acide malique; L'acide maleique; malic asit; malic acit; malic acite , MALİK ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİD; MALİC ACİDE; MALİK ASİD; ACİDE MALİQUE; ACİDE MALEİQUE; L'ACİDE MALİQUE; L'ACİDE MALEİQUE; MALİC ASİT; MALİC ACİT; MALİC ACİTE, MALIC ACID, MALIC ACID, NÜTANEDİOİK ASİT, bütan dioyik asit, bütandioic asit, butane dioic acid, butanedioyik asit, butan dioyik asit, butan asit, bütan asit, bütanedioic acid, BUTANEDİOİK ASİT, BUTANDIOYIK ASIT, Succinic acid, sussinik asit, suksinik asit, subsinik asit, SUCCINIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID, SUKSINIK ACID, SÜKSİNİK ASİT, SUBSİNİK ASİT, SÜCCİNİC ACİD, SUCCİNİC ASİT, HIDROKSI SICCINIC ACID, HIDROKSI SUCCINIC ACID, HİDROKSİ SÜKSİNİK ASİT, calcium (hydroxy-1-malate) hexahydrate; malate; malic acid; malic acid, (R)-isomer; malic acid, calcium salt, (1:1), (S)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt; malic acid, disodium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, disodium salt, (S)-isomer; malic acid, magnesium salt (2:1); malic acid, monopotassium salt, (+-)-isomer; malic acid, potassium salt, (R)-isomer; malic acid, sodium salt, (+-)-isomer; DL-malic acid; 6915-15-7; 2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid; 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid; malate; hydroxysuccinic acid; Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-; 617-48-1; Kyselina jablecna; Pomalus acid; hydroxybutanedioicacid; Deoxytetraric acid; Malic acid, DL-;

Low blood pressure: Malic acid might lower blood pressure. In theory, malic acid might increase the risk of blood pressure becoming too low in people prone to low blood pressure.
 
Malic Acid
Malic acid is a crystalline white solid with a melting point of 100°C. It is water soluble and less hygroscopic as compared to others, so as to provide a good storage shelf-life.
 
From: Recent Trends in Soft Beverages, 2011
 
Related terms:
Citric AcidSuccinic AcidMalolactic FermentationGlucoseMetabolismEnzymesFermentationYeastsTartaric Acid
 
 
 
Acide malique
 
Page d'aide sur l'homonymie Ne doit pas être confondu avec Acide maléique.
Acide malique
L-Äpfelsäure gespiegelt.svgD-Äpfelsäure.svg
Structure de l'acide L-malique (à gauche)
et de l'acide D-malique (à droite)
Identification
Nom UICPA acide 2-hydroxybutanedioïque
Synonymes 
acide α-hydroxysuccinique
 
 
No CAS 6915-15-7 (RS)
636-61-3 D ou R(+)
97-67-6 L ou S(-)
 
 
No ECHA 100.027.293
No CE 210-514-9 (DL)
PubChem 525
ChEBI 6650
No E E296
SMILES 
[Afficher]
InChI 
[Afficher]
Propriétés chimiques
Formule brute C4H6O5 [Isomères]
Masse molaire1 134,0874 ± 0,0051 g/mol
C 35,83 %, H 4,51 %, O 59,66 %,
pKa 3,46 et 5,10
Propriétés physiques
T° fusion 131 à 132 °C2
T° ébullition 140 °C2 (décomposition)
Solubilité 558 g·L-12 à 20 °C
Masse volumique 1,60 g·cm-32 à 20 °C
T° d'auto-inflammation 349 °C2
Point d'éclair 203 °C2
Thermochimie
Cp 
[+]
Cristallographie
Classe cristalline ou groupe d'espace Cc 4
Paramètres de maille a = 13,053 Å
b = 8,724 Å
c = 4,878 Å
α = 90,00 °
β = 103,31 °
γ = 90,00 °
Z = 4 (racémique) 4
 
 
Volume 540,56 Å3 4
Précautions
SGH2
SGH07 : Toxique, irritant, sensibilisant, narcotique
Attention
H319, P280, P305+P351+P338, P337+P313,
[+]
Unités du SI et CNTP, sauf indication contraire.
modifier Consultez la documentation du modèle
L'acide malique est un acide alpha-hydroxylé de formule HOOC-CH2-CHOH-COOH. Il s'agit d'un acide dicarboxylique très répandu dans le règne végétal et naturellement présent dans les pommes, les poires et le jus de raisin, dont il contribue à la saveur agréable. Il est de ce fait utilisé comme additif alimentaire, sous le numéro E296. Il existe sous la forme de deux diastéréoisomères, les énantiomères L et D ; seul l'acide L-malique est présent dans le milieu naturel. La base conjuguée de l'acide malique et ses sels sont appelés malates. L'anion L-malate est un intermédiaire du cycle de Krebs, l'une des voies métaboliques majeures de respiration cellulaire chez presque tous les êtres vivants, et intervient dans le cycle de Calvin, qui entre dans le cadre de la photosynthèse.
 
 
Biochimie
Le L-malate joue un rôle important en biochimie comme intermédiaire participant à plusieurs réactions structurantes du métabolisme cellulaire. Dans la fixation du carbone en C4, le malate est une source de CO2 dans le cycle de Calvin. Dans le cycle de Krebs, le L-malate est formé à partir de fumarate sous l'action de la fumarase. Il peut également être formé par des réactions anaplérotiques à partir du pyruvate.
 
Le L-malate est également produit par carboxylation du phosphoénolpyruvate dans les feuilles des plantes. Le malate interagit souvent avec des cations de potassium K+ lors de l'absorption de ces solutés par les cellules stomatiques des feuilles, ce qui conserve la charge électrique globale des cellules. L'accumulation de ces solutés dans les cellules stomatiques fait chuter la concentration en solutés dans l'eau environnante, ce qui permet d'assurer son absorption par les cellules de feuilles en déclenchant l'ouverture des stomates.
 
Industrie agroalimentaire et vinification
L'acide malique a été isolé pour la première fois à partir de jus de pomme par Carl Wilhelm Scheele en 1785. C'est Antoine Lavoisier qui, en 1787, a proposé le nom d'acide malique à partir du nom latin du pommier, Malus5,6. L'acide malique contribue à l'acidité du jus de pommes vertes. Il est présent dans le raisin et dans la plupart des vins à des concentrations pouvant parfois atteindre 5 g·l-1. Il donne un goût acidulé au vin, bien que la quantité présente décroisse au cours de la maturation des fruits. Le goût de l'acide malique est très clairement perceptible dans la rhubarbe, dont il constitue la saveur principale. La fermentation malolactique, utilisée en vinification, convertit l'acide malique en acide lactique, bien plus doux.
 
 
Production et principales réactions
L'acide malique racémique est obtenu industriellement par double hydratation d'anhydride maléique. Les deux énantiomères peuvent être séparés par résolution chirale du racémique, tandis que l'énantiomère L peut être spécifiquement obtenu par fermentation de l'acide fumarique.
 
L'autocondensation (en) de l'acide malique par chauffage en présence d'un oléum (acide sulfurique fumant) conduit à l'acide coumalique7, une pyrone :
 

(en) Conversion de l'acide malique en acide coumalique.
L'acide malique a joué un rôle important dans la découverte de l'inversion de Walden et du cycle de Walden, dans lequel l'acide L-malique est d'abord converti en acide chlorosuccinique sous l'action de pentachlorure de phosphore PCl5, puis en acide acide D-malique par oxyde d'argent(I) AgO2 aqueux. L'acide D-malique réagit avec le PCl5 pour redonner de l'acide chlorosuccinique, qui redonne l'acide L-malique sous l'action de l'AgO2 aqueux.
 
 
Fermentation malolactique en œnologie
En plus de la fermentation alcoolique, une autre transformation microbiologique est indispensable à la production de certains vins de qualité, en particulier des vins rouges ; il s'agit de la fermentation lactique de l'acide malique par certaines bactéries, ou fermentation malolactique. Cette transformation abaisse l'acidité et assouplit les vins. Elle se produit le plus souvent immédiatement après la fermentation alcoolique, et permet de réaliser rapidement la stabilisation biologique du vin.
 
Après la fermentation principale, lorsque les sucres ont disparu, l'acide malique L (isomère gauche) restant est le principal facteur d'instabilité car il peut être fermenté par les bactéries. C'est pour cette raison qu'on cherche à provoquer cette fermentation avant la commercialisation du vin. Cette opération n'est toutefois pas utilisée partout de façon volontaire. En effet, effectuée sur un vin ayant une acidité normale, elle serait nuisible au bouquet. D'autre part, le vigneron doit faire attention à ce que cette fermentation ne fasse pas naître dans le vin une saveur d'acide lactique qui serait perceptible lors de la dégustation.
L'acide malique est étroitement apparenté à l'acide oxalique, mais possède un groupe -CH2-CH(OH)- entre les 2 groupes d'acide carboxylique (caractère piquant de la pomme). Cette molécule possède deux énantiomères L et D, images l'une de l'autre dans un miroir. L'isomère L représente la forme la plus courante dans la nature.
L'acide malique contribue donc à définir l'état de maturité du raisin et même, dans une large mesure, la qualité du vin. Il est responsable de la sensation de vin non arrivé à maturité lorsque le raisin a subi un été frais, ainsi que du caractère un peu abrupt au goût des vins jeunes8. Depuis le raisin vert jusqu'au vin vineux, par les étapes de la maturation et des fermentations alcoolique et malolactique, la teneur en acide malique subit une série de diminutions, qui l'amène jusqu'à zéro ou presque, dans les vins non sulfités.
 
Phytoremédiation
En phytoremédiation on a découvert que pour le blé, du malate est émis par les cellules des extrémités des racines quand de l'aluminium dans le sol active une protéine de membrane encodée par ALMT1 (ce gène est le premier découvert dans une espèce végétale qui remplisse cette fonction d'adaptation à l'aluminium, et aussi le premier gène découvert encodant un type entièrement nouveau de protéine de transport). Les ions aluminium chargés positivement et les ions malate chargés négativement se lient et l'aluminium est ainsi neutralisé ce qui empêche les dégâts pour les racines.
 
 
Détartrant alimentaire
Associé à l'acide citrique, l'acide malique est utilisé comme détartrant pour les cafetières et bouilloires. Il est efficace contre le tartre et contre les dépôts gras laissés par le café qui, mêlés au tartre, facilitent le développement d'une microflore au goût désagréable et facilitent l'oxydation des pièces métalliques qui diffusent alors aussi dans les boissons des ions métalliques altérant également le goût et dégradant les arômes. Il a également une action antibactérienne. Il est utilisable aussi pour redonner leur transparence aux verres et leur brillant aux couverts et ustensiles de cuisine ; sans les corroder et comme additif de rinçage pour éliminer les traces de détergent. On le trouve sous forme liquide concentré ou sous forme de sels facilement solubles dans l'eau à température ambiante.
 
Assez oxydant contre le tartre (composé essentiellement de dépôts de carbonates de calcium et souvent de traces de sulfure malodorant, le soufre étant utilisé pour le traitement des eaux de ville très dures) et assez stable au voisinage de la température d'ébullition de l'eau, il n'altère pas les parties métalliques des chaudières ni les joints d'étanchéité (tant qu'ils ne sont pas déjà altérés par le tartre qui va être dissous). Les traces résiduelles d'acide citrique ou malique, après un court rinçage de ces deux acides, n'altèrent pas non plus le goût et les arômes du café ou du thé préparé dans les premiers cycles après le détartrage (contrairement au détartrage au vinaigre blanc ou acide acétique, qui oxyde les cuves en aluminium ou en fonte) et n'ont pas de caractère toxique à l'ingestion à ces dosages faibles. Les vapeurs dégagées lors du cycle de détartrage sont également beaucoup moins irritantes que celles des produits à base de chlore ou d'acide acétique. Toutefois il ne faut pas mélanger cet acide avec des produits chlorés comme l'eau de Javel, à cause du dégagement important de chlore gazeux (source fréquente d'intoxication par les produits nettoyants ménagers par inhalation accidentelle).

Ataman Kimya A.Ş. © 2015 Tüm Hakları Saklıdır.